Submitted to: Annals of the Entomological Society of America
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/5/2003
Publication Date: 5/1/2004
Citation: Chang, C.L., Caceres, C., Jang, E.B. 2004. A novel liquid larval diet and its rearing system for melon fly, bactrocera cucurbitae (diptera: tephritidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 97(3):524-528.
Interpretive Summary: The Melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), a worldwide pest, has been mass reared using wheat bran or its products as bulking agents for SIT program in Okinawa and Hawaii. Wheat bran products present the following problem: inconsistency of quality and water absorbency, pesticide contamination, spend diet management, storage space, high costs, labor intensive, sanitation, non-reusable, and non-recyclable. The rearing of B. cucurbitae, using a liquid diet remained a long term objective for tephritid fruit fly mass-rearing programs over the last three decades. The conversion from a bulk-based diet to an all liquid diet could have several operational benefits. One major problem is finding an optimal substrate for the first and second instar to develop. In this study, we formulated a liquid diet consisting of sugar, brewer's yeast, antimicrobial agents, citric acid and water and using sponge cloths as delivery matix. With this liquid diet, spent diet management is resolved, pesticide contamination is a legend, bulking agents search is terminated and storage space and labor savings led us to a cost-effective melon fly rearing.
Technical Abstract: Liquid diet was developed based on the formulation of currently ARS used larval diet with the elimination of wheat products as bulking agents, replacement of torula yeast with brewer's yeast and addition of citric acid. The evaluation of this diet was based on the following parameters: larval development period, pupal recovery, adult emergence, pupal weight, percent flier, egg hatch, egg production. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance using the ANOVA and Proc Univariate procedure of the SAS statistical analysis software package with honet significant difference (HSD).