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Title: Phosphorus dynamics in broiler litter-amended soils

item Sistani, Karamat
item BAL'A, M - Former ARS Employee
item Rowe, Dennis

Submitted to: Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/8/2004
Publication Date: 3/1/2005
Citation: Adeli, A., Sistani, K.R., Bal'a, M.F., Rowe, D.E. 2005. Phosphorus dynamics in broiler litter-amended soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 36:1099-1115.

Interpretive Summary: Broiler litter is considered a source of phosphorus (P) and other plant nutrients. Maximizing the use of this abundant resource requires information on the quantity and the availability of its nutrient contribution to the soil-crop system. It is also critical to understand how environmental factors such as ambient temperature and moisture alter the rate and extent of the nutrient contribution from litter. Phosphorus in the broiler litter is in the forms of organic and inorganic. The proportions of these two forms of P are important in order to determine availability and effectiveness of broiler litter P to crops. An incubation experiment was conducted to determine the impact of temperature broiler litter P transformation in three Mississippi soils. Results show that over 60% of the broiler litter P is in the form of water soluble and bicarbonate extractable. This suggest that litter application should be avoided during the wet months in order to avoid P transport by water. Data also show that transformation of broiler litter P maximize within 20 days at temperature ranging from 18 to 32 degrees celsius.

Technical Abstract: Since land application of broiler litter is made year-round, it is essential to understand how environmental variations affect the rate and extent of P mineralization. The amount of P mineralized in soils treated with broiler litter was determined in an incubation study using three different soils incubated at 18 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 32 degrees C. Soil samples were taken at 5,7,10,15,30,60 and 90d and analyzed for water soluble P, acid extractable P, and soil P fractions including NaHCO3-soluble inorganic and organic P, NaOH-soluble inorganic and organic P, HCl-soluble P, and residual P. Water soluble and acid extractable P levels initially decreased, then increased, and approached a steady state after approximately 15d. No significant differences in water soluble P and acid extractable P were found among the incubation temperatures in Grenada and Ruston soils. However, for Leeper soil, the amount of acid extractable P at 32 degrees C incubation was significantly greater than at 18 degrees C, and 25 degrees C. The concentration of NaHCO3-IP, NaOH-IP, and HCl-P fractions linearly increased with increasing broiler litter application rates. The concentration of water soluble P, NaOH-IP, and NaHCO3-IP significantly increased with increasing temperature from 18 degrees C to 25 degrees C. The concentration of H2O-P and HC1-P in Grenada soil was much greater than the other two soils at 25 degrees C, and 32 degrees C.