Submitted to: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/15/2003
Publication Date: 11/1/2003
Citation: BROGDEN, K.A., ACKERMANN, M.R., MCCRAY, P.B., TACK, B.F. ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES IN ANIMALS AND THEIR ROLE IN HOST DEFENSES. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS. 2003. Vol. 22, p. 465-478.
Technical Abstract: Domesticated animals have a large variety of antimicrobial peptides that serve as natural innate barriers limiting microbial infection or, in some instances, as integral components in response to inflammation or microbial infection. These peptides differ in sizes, compositions, mechanisms of activity, and ranges of antimicrobial specificities. They are expressed in a number of tissues as well as in polymorphonuclear leukocytes, mucosal epithelial cells, and mucosal secretions. There is a small group of anionic antimicrobial peptides found in ruminants and a much larger group of cationic antimicrobial peptides found in all domesticated animals. These include linear, helical peptides, linear peptides rich in proline, and cysteine-stabilized peptides with a beta-sheet. The cationic peptides are more commonly referred to as cathelicidins and defensins. These peptides are generally broad-spectrum for Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi (e.g., myeloid antimicrobial peptides, alpha-, beta-, theta-defensins, and protegrins) or are specific to one of these groups of microorganisms (e.g., porcine cecropin P1, Bac 5, Bac7, PR-39, and prophenin). Structure-function studies on antimicrobial peptides from animals are currently identifying congeners that warrant further development as prophylactic or therapeutic agents for microbial disease.