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Title: ATTEMPTS TO TRANSFER RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID RESISTANCE FROM A RYE CHROMOSOME IN RUSSIAN TRITICALES TO WHEAT

Author
item LUKASZEWSKI, ADAM
item Porter, David
item Baker, Cheryl
item RYBKA, K
item LAPINSKI, B

Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/1/2001
Publication Date: 11/1/2001
Citation: Lukaszewski, A.J., Porter, D.R., Baker, C.A., Rybka, K., Lapinski, B. 2001. Attempts to transfer Russian wheat aphid resistance from a rye chromosome in Russian triticales to wheat. Crop Science. 41(6):1743-1749.

Interpretive Summary: The Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a highly destructive pest of wheat. Several types of wheat have been found to be genetically resistant to RWA, but the level of resistance is not as high as that found in triticale (a cross of wheat and rye). Some triticale plants are nearly immune to RWA feeding damage. We attempted to transfer this high level of RWA resistance from two triticales from Russia into wheat using classical chromosome engineering techniques. We used irradiation and another hybridization technique to try to force the triticales to recombine genetically with wheat in order to transfer the RWA resistance genes. Using these techniques we were able to transfer pieces of the triticale's chromosomes to wheat and these new wheat plants were resistant to the RWA. However, the level of resistance was much lower than that of the triticale parents. Based on genetic and chromosome analysis, we believe that some resistance genes were eon both the wheat and rye chromosomes of the triticale plants. And both genes need to be present in order to get the high level of resistance of the triticale parent. When we tried to transfer these genes to wheat, not all genes were transferred and therefore the level of resistance was not as high as that of the triticale parent. We found that the moderate level of RWA resistance produced in wheat was not worth the effort required to transfer the resistance genes from the Russian triticales.

Technical Abstract: To extend the range of genetic variation of resistance to the Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia Mordvilko) (RWA) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) attempts were undertaken to transfer near-immunity to RWA from two Russian hexaploid triticales (X Triticosecale Wittmack) PI386146 and PI386156 by irradiation and by induced homologous recombination. The rye genome in the donor triticale lines was identified as S. montanum. Tests of resistance among segregating progeny in the early backcross generations showed that the near-immunity of the triticale lines was controlled by at least two genes with additive effects. One of those genes was located on the long arm of rye chromosome 4RL*mon while the other was in the wheat genome. Centric wheat-rye translocation 7DS.4RL*mon was produced and its long arm was induced to recombine with wheat chromosomes. Irradiation treatment followed by several generations of selection and screening for resistance resulted in a wheat line that upon karyotyping was found to be a disomic addition o chromosome 4R*mon - centric translocation homozygote of rye chromosome tentatively identified as 5R*mon. Both the addition line of 4R*mon and recombinant lines of 4RL*mon had only moderate level of resistance to RWA. The study demonstrates that attempts to transfer alien variation into wheat may be severely complicated by low levels of homology and by structural differences between the donor and recipient chromosomes.