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item Williams, Mary - Mimi

Submitted to: Agronomy Journal
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/7/2001
Publication Date: 1/7/2002
Citation: Williams, M.J., Valencia, E., Sollenberger, L.E. 2002. Interaction of planting date, site preparation, and herbicide on establishment of rhizoma peanut[abstract]. Agronomy Journal.94:1350-1354

Interpretive Summary: Rhizoma peanut is a tropical forage legume that can be used for pasture or hay production. Costs associated with establishing rhizoma peanut stands have limited its commercial use to hay producers who want pure rhizoma peanut stands. Planting rhizoma peanut directly into a grass sod may be a practical procedure for producers (e.g., cow-calf production, low maintenance roadside or turf situations, wildlife feed, etc.) who do not need the feed value of pure rhizoma peanut stands. We looked at the effect of no-till vs. conventional sprig planters on the emergence and survival of rhizoma peanut when used in combination with undisturbed grass sod vs. rotovated grass sod at winter vs. summer planting date with and without a broadcast application of a nonselective herbicide. Planter types were found to be equally effective in establishing rhizoma peanut in prepared or grass sod. Preplant treatment of grass sods with herbicide to suppress grass competition may not be beneficial due to the potential for invasion of forbs. We showed that producers should select establishment practices that best ensure rapid development of rhizoma peanut plantings and that meet their production goals (clean cultivation establishment for hay pro- duction or dairy cattle grazing and sod planting for beef cattle, roadside, turf, or wildlife situations). Regardless of establishment practices imposed, establishment of rhizoma peanut can be slow, particularly under dryland situations.

Technical Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of planter (no- till vs. conventional sprig planter), ground preparation (undisturbed sod vs. rotovated), planting date (winter vs. summer), and herbicide (glyphosate vs. none) on the establishment and survival of rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) in bermudagrass sod (Cynodon dactylon L.). Sprout emergence (sprouts/m*2) at 2- to 12-wk post planting and percent ground cover of grass or grass-like plants, forbs, dead material, and bare ground at 12-wk post planting were determined. Percent ground cover of rhizoma peanut at 18- and 12-mo post planting for winter and summer planting dates, respectively, also was determined. Planter type had no effect on rhizoma peanut establishment. In 1996 there was a planting date X ground preparation X herbicide interaction with final sprout count in winter planted, rotovated plots without herbicide having lower sprout counts than any other rotovated treatment. In 1997, only the main effects of planting date and ground preparation and their interaction affected sprout emergence and survival. Final sprout counts were positively correlated with bare ground (r=0.37). Herbicide did not consistently reduce total ground cover due to increased annual forb cover one year. This study indicates that producers can select establishment practices for rhizoma peanut plantings that meet their production goals (clean cultivation establishment for hay production or dairy cattle grazing and sod planting without herbicide for less intensive situations).