Submitted to: Journal of Plant Nutrition
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/4/2000
Publication Date: 7/14/2000
Citation: Clark, R.B., Zeto, S.K. 2000. Mineral acquisition by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition 28:49-62.
Interpretive Summary: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are essentially universal in most soils, and are generally beneficial to plants. For mycorrhizal plants (roots colonized with AMF), a major benefit is that fungal hyphae extend beyond roots per se to expand the volume of soil for which mineral nutrients can be acquired, to enhance mineral acquisition, and/or to make nutrients available compared to what roots themselves could do. As such, AMF allow plants to grow and produce in some relatively harsh mineral stress (deficiency and toxicity) soil environments. This article reviews the effects of AMF on enhancing acquisition of mineral nutrients required for plant growth and restricting some minerals that may become toxic to plants. The nutrients enhanced most in host mycorrhizal plants grown in many soils (e.g., high and low soil pH) are phosphorus, nitrogen, zinc, and copper, but potassium, calcium, and magnesium are also enhanced when plants are grown in acidic soils. Many AMF also have the ability to restrict toxic aluminum and manganese acquisition and ameliorate toxicities for plants grown in acidic soil. Plant roots colonized with AMF have potential to establish better/faster with low inputs because of ability of AMF to enhance plant acquisition of mineral nutrients required for plant growth and to ameliorate toxic mineral conditions.
Technical Abstract: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) benefit plants by allowing them to grow and produce in relatively harsh mineral stress environments. This has been attributed extensively to ability of AMF to expand the volume of soil for which mineral nutrients are made available to plants compared to what roots themselves would contact. This article reviews the effects of AMF on enhancing/reducing acquisition of P, N, S, B, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Al, Si, and some trace elements in plants. The nutrients enhanced most in host plants grown in many soils (e.g., high and low soil pH) are P, N, Zn, and Cu, but K, Ca, and Mg are enhanced when plants are grown in acidic soils. Many AMF also have the ability to ameliorate Al and Mn toxicities for plants are grown in acidic soil.