Submitted to: Archives of Virology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/2/2000
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: An adenovirus has been shown by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry to be the cause of a hemorrhagic disease that resulted in high mortality in mule deer herds throughout northern and central California in 1993. The disease was similar to that produced by epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue viruses in deer in the United States. In this study, we describe the isolation and characterization of the associated virus. The virus had the characteristics of members of the Adenoviridae family. While the deer adenovirus was closely related to two adenoviruses found in cattle and one in goats, the growth and genetic characteristics of this virus appears sufficiently distinct to justify consideration as a new adenovirus species. Because the adenovirus hemorrhagic disease is similar to the clinical disease produced by epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue viruses in deer in the United States, adenovirus should be considered in the differential diagnosis in deer with hemorrhagic disease.
Technical Abstract: An adenovirus associated with systemic and localized vascular damage was demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry in a newly recognized epizootic hemorrhagic disease in California black-tailed deer. In this study, we describe the cultural, physicochemical and serological characteristics of a virus isolated from lung using neonatal white-tail deer lung and turbinate cell cultures. The virus had the cultural, morphological and physicochemical characteristics of members of the Adenoviridae family. The virus would not replicate in low passage fetal bovine, caprine or ovine cells. Antiserum to the deer adenovirus, strain D94-2569, neutralized bovine adenovirus type-6 (BAdV-6), BAdV-7 and caprine adenovirus type-1 (GoAdV-1). Antiserum to BAdV-6 did not neutralize the deer adenovirus but antiserum to BAdV-7 and GoAdV-1 neutralized the deer adenovirus. Cross-neutralization with the other bovine, caprine and ovine adenovirus types was not observed. Restriction endonuclease patterns generated for the deer adenovirus were unique compared to those for the currently recognized bovine, caprine and ovine adenovirus types. Amino acid sequence alignments of the hexon gene from the deer adenovirus strain D94-2569 with ovine adenovirus 287 indicate that it is a member of the proposed new genus (Atadenovirus) of the Adenoviridae family. While the deer adenovirus was closely related antigenically to BAdV-7 and GoAdV-1, it appears sufficiently distinct culturally and molecularly to justify consideration as a new adenovirus species.