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Research Project: Childhood Obesity Prevention

Location: Children's Nutrition Research Center

2018 Annual Report

1-4) [removed due to investigator departure]; 5) assess and enhance the validity and reliability of Personal Activity Location Measurement System, through multiple, iterative studies to accurately measure preschool children's PA, transportation, and location; 6) identify eating patterns in children, adolescents, and adults and examine the association with obesity and related health risk factors; 7) identify barriers and facilitators to Dietary Guidelines for Americans adherence, and examine the association with BMI; 8) assess the impact of food security status on dietary intake measured using HEI-2005, among children across the different age groups, based on parent/family participation in federal food assistance programs; 9) assess the impact of food security status on costs of meals, based on costs per serving of food, nutrient density, and diet quality as measured by HEI-2005, among children across various age groups; 10) Improve validity and reliability of objective dietary assessment by combining Sun e.button system which identifies a prioritized list of likely foods and amounts consumed and at the end of the day have children use ASA24-Kids to review, verify, and correct food identity problems and portion size information from Sun e.button images; 11) improve validity and reliability of objective physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior assessment (both type and intensity) by combining Sun e.button system with accelerometers, and enable children to review and correct estimates of type of activity/sedentary behavior from Sun e.button using a simple correction recording system at the end of the day; 12) conduct formative research with parents of 8- to 10-year-old African American girls to identify beliefs, values, and practices related to diet, PA, sedentary behavior, and body weight; 13) develop and test a text message intervention for parents to test feasibility of factors identified in Obj. 12 at promoting healthy home food and activity environments; 14) develop a model of parent-child interactions in the family eating environment among low-income families, and determine what aspects of parent-child interactions foster excess calorie intake in children; 15) collect descriptive data on behaviors used to assess infant temperament at 4-months of age; 16) assess correlations between infant temperament based on direct observation using two protocols measured at 4-months and 6-months of age; and 17) assess correlations between infant temperament based on direct observation using two protocols in each of two settings (laboratory and daycare).

A multidimensional approach will be undertaken to address the obesity research conducted at the Children's Nutrition Research Center. Pediatricians will assess the validity of using the Personal Activity Location Measurement System (PALMS) tool to simultaneously process accelerometer-based physical activity data and GPS-based location data to identify preschool children's physical activity, transportation, and location since studies have suggested that many young children do not meet the physical activity recommendations. In another study researchers will work to understand and prevent obesity both dietary and physical activity behavior, their determinants, and their direct and indirect associations with overweight will be examined to identify barriers and facilitators to Dietary Guidelines for Americans adherence. Additionally, researchers will obtain costs of foods consumed by children, compare food costs by diet quality, nutrient density, and food security status, assess consumer behaviors from the NHANES consumer behavior questionnaire and determine the impact of food security status on consumer behaviors among children. Other research will develop a model of parent-child interactions in the family eating environment among low-income families (based on direct research observations), and determine what aspects of parent-child interactions foster excess calorie intake in children. Researchers also will utilize an electronic button that has been previously utilized in adults, to objectively assess child diet by verifying food identity and portion size as well as recording the child's physical activity levels. Qualitative research will also be performed in another study to inform intervention content, structure, and procedures in order to assess the feasibility of a culturally grounded text message based obesity prevention intervention with parents of 8-10 year old African American girls. Behavioral researchers will examine whether there is an association between affiliation and orienting in infancy and adiposity, and if so, why this association exists.

Progress Report
Significant research progress was accomplished during the year. To review the progress, please refer to project 3092-51000-058-01S (Project #1), 3092-51000-058-02S (Project #2), 3092-51000-058-03S (Project #3), and new project 3092-51000-058-04S (Project #4).

1. Comparing costs and calories of a la carte food items purchased by students. A la carte foods and beverages in schools are often low nutrient and energy dense and yet many students obtain these items in schools. In Houston, Texas, researchers assessed how much money students spent for a la carte foods and beverages, and the total kilocalories purchased per student in elementary and intermediate schools. About 70 percent of the intermediate school students purchased a la carte foods and beverages as compared to 30 percent of the elementary students with intermediate school students spending $1.60 more and consuming 242 calories more than elementary school students. Whether the new USDA rules for competitive foods in schools (foods sold/served in schools other than those served by the school food service program such as a la carte foods, vending machines, etc.) improve student food selection and purchase, and dietary intake habits across all grade levels remains unknown.

2. Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) menus need improvement to meet the new CACFP meal patterns. The CACFP is a USDA nutrition program that reimburses food costs to day care sites to provide healthy meals and snacks to low-income children. Researchers in Houston, Texas assessed the agreement of posted menus with foods served to 3-5 yr-old children attending CACFP enrolled centers, and the degree to which the facilities met the new CACFP meal patterns and best practices mandated by the USDA in October 2017. These changes are the first major changes to the CACFP nutrition standards since the program began in 1968 and are based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Findings from this study are encouraging in that the centers were providing meals that met the current CACFP guidelines however, some menu improvements are needed for the centers to meet the new guidelines and best practices. Agreement with the new guidelines and best practices will help reduce the high prevalence of childhood obesity and other health concerns that result from limited access to nutritious foods.

3. Family text: Mobile child obesity prevention. The rise of childhood obesity, especially in minorities, has caused researchers to look at innovative methods to reach this group and those that influence the child's eating environment. Researchers in Houston, Texas investigated whether a mobile health child obesity prevention intervention, consisting of text messages and links to reliable websites, was a feasible and acceptable approach to parents of 8-10 year old African American girls. We showed that this is a feasible and acceptable method for helping these parents modify the home environment to support and promote obesity prevention; thus it has the potential for broad dissemination. Given the prevalence of obesity in African American girls, this research has the potential for substantial public health significance and impact.

4. Assessment of child participation in food preparation. Although previous research suggests children who "help" prepare meals may obtain some dietary benefit, accurate assessment tools of child food preparation behavior are lacking. Researchers in Houston, Texas conducted an analysis of images taken from 31 participants wearing an eButton, a multi-sensor device worn on the chest which uses a camera to passively capture images of everything in front of the child throughout the day. Researchers found that the most common activity was browsing in the pantry or fridge and few participants demonstrated any food preparation work beyond unwrapping of food packages and combining two or more ingredients; actual cutting or measuring of foods were rare. The eButton may provide an objective method for assessing child participation in food preparation.

5. Beverage consumption in the diets of children is not consistently associated with weight. Beverages are an important component of the American diet but their correlation to children's weight status needs to be more thoroughly understood. Researchers in Houston, Texas, examined the association between the types of beverages consumed and the weight status in children and found that beverages contributed 19% of total energy intake of children with the major food sources being sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), milk and milk drinks, and 100% fruit juice (FJ). SSB contributed the most to energy intake but provided virtually no vitamins and minerals, unlike milk and milk drinks and 100% FJ. The likelihood of being overweight or obese was not consistently significant for any of the beverages studied, and also that for every 29.6 mL of water consumed, the risk of being obese was 1%. Thus, beverage consumption was not consistently associated with weight status in the diets of a nationally representative sample of children and this information will be helpful as obesity intervention programs are designed.

6. Flavored milk consumers drank more milk and met their calcium recommendation. Milk is a major component of children's diet and it provides essential nutrients such as vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Researchers in Houston, Texas assessed the impact of consuming flavored milk on the diets of children. Drinking flavored milk increased the consumption of added sugars, saturated fats and energy in consumers however it met their dietary recommendation for calcium and magnesium. Efforts are needed to increase children's intake of dietary fiber, vitamin D, and potassium to meet the recommendations.

7. Association of usual intake of added sugars with nutrient requirements. The recommendation for sugar intake is to limit and reduce the consumption of added sugars. Researchers in Houston, Texas examined the relationship between the typical intake of added sugars and nutrient requirements. Ten vitamins and seven minerals were studied and for most nutrients added sugar intake was not related to nutrient requirements. The nutrients affected by added sugars consumption were calcium and vitamin E for children, and vitamin D for adults. As this is a recent finding, more research is needed to continue to scientifically assess at what level of intake of added sugars is significantly associated with micronutrient intake across multiple age groups.

8. Feeding styles and dietary quality of the dinner meal. Feeding styles have been linked to child weight status and some problematic eating behaviors in children. Little is actually known about the diet quality of meals provided to children based on the feeding styles of their parents. Researchers in Houston, Texas investigated the dietary quality of three dinner meals per child based on data from 131 Head Start families and found that parents in the authoritative feeding style (highly responsive and provide boundaries) served dinner with the highest diet quality compared to parents in the uninvolved feeding style. Uninvolved feeders are uninvolved during eating episodes, make few demands on their children to eat, and are generally unsupportive. Children of authoritative feeders consumed a dinner meal with significantly better diet quality (higher Healthy Eating Index scores) compared to children of authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved feeding styles. This is important as researchers may want to consider not only the quality of the food offered to children during dinner meals but also the feeding behaviors exhibited by the different feeding styles when developing prevention programs to reduce childhood obesity.

9. Semi-passive assessment of children's diet by dietitians using all day images. The rise of childhood obesity has caused researchers and dietitians to look at new methods to better assess a child's dietary intake. The eButton is a multi-sensor device worn on the chest which uses a camera to passively capture images of everything in front of the child. However incompleteness and inaccuracies in the dietary intake assessment from the eButton alone suggests complementary enhancements (e.g. verbal statements on an audio recorder, a bites or chewing sensor, etc.) are needed. Researchers in Houston, Texas assessed eButton images from two days (24,000 total images from 2 days of 12 hour image taking) and held verification interviews collected from each of 30 children. We found that verification interviews were crucial to obtaining complete information clarifying which foods were consumed, and identifying the food. Researchers concluded that a following day verification interview with the child and parent was necessary to ensure completeness of estimates. With these interviews the eButton may provide a semi-passive method for dietary intake assessment with children.

10. Establishing assessment of infant temperament. An objective measure of infant temperament does not exist and this is a problem because temperament may be an important connection to eating behaviors and obesity at this young age of under 1 year of age. Current available measures of infant temperament are based on parent-reports of temperament and these are often biased and reflect the parent's response to the child's weight; therefore, it is difficult to get an accurate assessment of the extent to which infant temperament and infant obesity are correlated, and not skewed by parental bias. Researchers in Houston, Texas have developed an objective assessment of infant temperament, and demonstrated that the behaviors contributing to the measure can be coded reliably, and correlate with parent reports of infant temperament that is free of parental biases. This will have several impacts: our researchers will be better able to assess the extent to which infant temperament associates with eating behaviors and/or obesity at this young age; and other related researchers will be able to utilize this temperament assessment.

Review Publications
Wu, J.H., Marklund, M., Imamura, F., Tintle, N., Korat, A.V., de Goede, J., Zhou, X., Yang, W.S., Otto, M.C., Kroger, J., Qureshi, W., Virtanen, J.K., Bassett, J., Frazier-Wood, A.C., Lankinen, M., Murphy, R.A., Rajaobelina, K., Del Gobbo, L.C., Forouhi, N.G., Luben, R., Khaw, K.T., Wareham, N., Kalsbeek, A., Veenstra, J., Luo, J., Hu, F.B., Lin, H.J., Siscovick, D.S., Boeing, H., Chen, T.A., Steffen, B., Steffen, L.M., Hodge, A., Eriksdottir, G., Smith, A.V., Gudnason, V., Harris, T.B., Brouwer, I.A., Berr, C., Helmer, C., Samieri, C., Laakso, M., Tsai, M.Y., Giles, G.G., Nurmi, T., Wagenknecht, L., Schulze, M.B., Lemaitre, R.N., Chien, K.L., Soedamah-Muthu, S.S., Geleijnse, J.M., Sun, Q., Harris, W.S., Lind, L., Ärnlöv, J., Riserus, U., Micha, R., Mozaffarian, D. 2017. Omega-6 fatty acid biomarkers and incident type 2 diabetes: Pooled analysis of individual-level data for 39740 adults from 20 prospective cohort studies. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinology.
McKeown, N.M., Dashti, H.S., Ma, J., Haslam, D.E., Kiefte-de Jong, J.C., Smith, C.E., Tanaka, T., Graff, M., Lemaitre, R.N., Rybin, D., Sonestedt, E., Frazier-Wood, A.C., Mook-Kanamori, D.O., Li, Y., Wang, C.A., Leermakers, E.T.M., Mikkila, V., Young, K.L., Mukamal, K.J., Cupples, L.A., Schulz, C.A., Chen, T.A., Li-Gao, R., Huang, T., Oddy, W.H., Raitakari, O., Rice, K., Meigs, J.B., Ericson, U., Steffen, L.M., Rosendaal, F.R., Hofman, A., Kahonen, M., Psaty, B.M., Brunkwall, L., Uitterlinden, A.G., Viikari, J., Siscovick, D.S., Seppala, I., North, K.E., Mozaffarian, D., Dupuis, J., Orho-Melander, M., Rich, S.S., de Mutsert, R., Qi, L., Pennell, C.E., Franco, O.H., Lehtimaki, T., Herman, M.A. 2017. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake associations with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations are not modified by selected genetic variants in a ChREBP-FGF21 pathway: A meta-analysis. Diabetologia.
Simon, T.G., Trejo, M.E., Zeb, I., Frazier-Wood, A.C., McClelland, R.L., Chung, R.T., Budoff, M.J. 2017. Coffee consumption is not associated with prevalent subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) or the risk of CVD events, in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Results from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Metabolism. 75:1-5.
Ugalde, M., Brand, L., Beltran, A., Dadabhoy, H., Chen, T.A., O'Connor, T.M., Hughes, S.O., Baranowski, T., Buday, R., Nicklas, T.A., Baranowski, J. 2017. Mommio's recipe box: Assessment of the cooking habits of mothers of preschoolers and their perceptions of recipes for a video game. JMIR Serious Games. 5(4):e20.
Moreno, J.P., Vezina-Im, L.A., Vaughan, E.M., Baranowski, T. 2017. Impact of child summertime obesity interventions on body mass index, and weight-related behaviours: A systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. BMJ Open. 7(10):e017144.
Chen, H., Cade, B.E., Gleason, K.J., Bjonnes, A.C., Stilp, A.M., Sofer, T., Conomos, M.P., Ancoli-Israel, S., Arens, R., Azarbarzin, A., Bell, G.I., Below, J.E., Chun, S. Evans, D.S., Ewert, R., Frazier-Wood, A.C., Gharib, S.A., Haba-Rubio, J., Hagen, E. W., Heinzer, R., Hillman, D. R., Johnson, W.C., Kutalik, Z., Lane, J.M., Larkin, E.K., Lee, S.K., Liang, J., Loredo, J.S., Mukherjee, S., Palmer, L.J., Papanicolaou, G.J., Penzel, T., Peppard, P.E., Post, W.S., Ramos, A. R., Rice, K., Rotter, J. I., Sands, S.A., Shah, N.A., Shin,C., Stone, K.L., Stubbe, B., Sul, J.H., Tafti, M., Taylor, K.D., Teumer, A., Thornton, T.A., Tranah, G.J., Wang, C., Wang, H., Warby, S.C., Wellman, D.A., Zee, P.C., Hanis, C.L., Laurie, C.C., Gottlieb, D.J., Patel, S.R., Zhu, X., Sunyaev, S.R., Saxena, R., Lin, X., Redline, S. 2017. Multi-ethnic meta-analysis identifies RAI1 as a possible obstructive sleep apnea related quantitative trait locus in men. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology.
Dave, J.M., Liu, Y., Chen, T.A., Thompson, D.J., Cullen, K.W. 2018. Does the Kids Cafe Program's nutrition education improve children's dietary intake? A pilot evaluation study. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior.
Tu, A.W., O'Connor, T.M., Beauchamp, M.R., Hughes, S.O., Baranowski, T., Masse, L.C. 2017. What do US and Canadian parents do to encourage or discourage physical activity among their 5-12 year old children? BioMed Central(BMC) Public Health. 17:920.
Rifai, M.A., Greenland, P., Blaha, M.J., Michos, E.D., Nasir, K., Miedema, M.D., Yeboah, J., Sandfort, V., Frazier-Wood, A.C., Shea, S., Lima, J.A., Szklo, M., Post, W.S., Blumenthal, R.S., McEvoy, J.W. 2017. Factors of health in the protection against death and cardiovascular disease among adults with subclinical atherosclerosis. American Heart Journal.
Jiang, X., O'Reilly, P.F., Aschard, H., Hsu, Y.H., Richards, J.B., Dupuis, J., Ingelsson, E., Karasik, D., Pilz, S., Berry, D., Kestenbaum, B., Zheng, J., Luan, J., Sofianopoulou, E., Streeten, E.A., Albanes, D., Lutsey, P.L., Yao, L., Tang, W., Econs, M.J., Wallaschofski, H., Volzke, H., Zhou, A., Power, C., McCarthy, M.I., Michos, E.D., Boerwinkle, E., Weinstein, S.J., Freedman, N.D., Huang, W.Y., Van Schoor, N.M., van der Velde, N., de Groot, L.C., Enneman, A., Cupples, L.A., Booth, S.L., Vasan, R.S., Liu, C.T., Zhou, Y., Ripatti, S., Ohlsson, C., Vandeput, L., Lorentzon, M., Eriksson, J.G., Shea, M.K., Houston, D.K., Kritshevsky, S.B., Liu, Y., Lohman, K.K., Ferucci, L., Peacock, M., Gieger, C., Beekman, M., Slagboom, E., Deelen, J., van Heemst, D., Kleber, M.E., Marz, W., de Boer, I.H., Wood, A.C., Rotter, J.I., Rich, S.S., Robinson-Cohen, C., den Heijer, M., Jarvelin, M.R., Cavadino, A., Joshi, P.K., Wilson, J.F., Hayward, C., Lind, L., Michaelsson, K., Trompet, S., Zillikens, M.C., Uitterlinden, A.G., Rivadeneira, F., Broer, L., Zgaga, L., Campbell, H., Theodoratou, E., Farrington, S.M., Timofeeva, M., Dunlop, M.G., Valdes, A.M., Tikkanen, E., Lehtimaki, T., Lyytikainen, L.P., Kahonen, M., Raitakari, O.T., Wang, T.J., Hypponen, E., Kraft, P., Kiel, D.P. 2018. Genome-wide association study in 79,366 European-ancestry individuals informs the genetic architecture of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Nature Communications. 9:260.
Callender, C., Thompson, D.J. 2017. Text messaging based obesity prevention program for parents of pre-adolescent African American girls. Children. 4(12):105.
Huang, T., Ding, M., Bergholdt, H.K., Wang, T., Heianza, Y., Sun, D., Frazier-Wood, A.C., Asilibekyan, S., North, K.E., Voortman, T., Graff, M., Smith, C.E., Lai, C.Q., Varbo, A., Lemaitre, R.N., De Jonge, M.W., Fumeron, F., Corella, D., Wang, C.A., Tjonneland, A., Overad, K., Sorensen, T.I., Feitosa, M.F., Wojczynski, M.K., Kahonen, M., Renstrom, F., Psaty, B.M., Siscovick, D.S., Barroso, I., Johansson, I., Hernandez, D., Ferucci, L., Bandinelli, S., Linneberg, A., Zillikens, M.C., Sandholt, C.H., Pedersen, O., Hansen, T., Schulz, C.A., Sonestedt, E., Orho-Melander, M., Chen, T.A., Rotter, J.I., Allison, M.A., Rich, S.S., Sorli, J.V., Coltell, O., Pennell, C.E., Eastwood, P., Hofman, A., Uitterlinden, A.G., Van Rooij, F.J., Chu, A.Y., Rose, L.M., Ridker, P.M., Viikari, J., Raitakari, O., Lehtimaki, T., Mikkila, V., Willett, W.C., Wang, Y., Tucker, K.L., Ordovas, J.M., Kilpelainen, T.O., Province, M.A., Franks, P.W., Arnett, D.K., Tanaka, T., Toft, U., Ericson, U., Franco, O.H., Mozaffarian, D., Hu, F.B., Chasman, D.I., Nordestgaard, B.G., Ellervik, C., Qi, L. 2017. Dairy consumption and body mass index among adults: Mendelian randomization analysis of 184802 individuals from 25 studies. Clinical Chemistry.
Thompson, D.J., Cantu, D., Callender, C., Liu, Y., Rajendran, M., Rajendran, M., Zhang, Y., Deng, Z. 2018. Photorealistic avatar and teen physical activity: Feasibility and preliminary efficacy. The Games for Health Journal: Research, Development, and Clinical Applications.
Beltran, A., Dadabhoy, H., Ryan, C., Dholakia, R., Baranowski, J., Li, Y., Yan, G., Jia, W., Sun, M., Baranowski, T. 2018. Reliability and validity of food portion size estimation from images using manual flexible digital virtual meshes. Public Health Nutrition.
O'Connor, T., Sisley, S., Bacha, F. 2018. The overweight or obese child. In: Kline, M.W., Blaney, S.M., Giardino, A.P., Orange, J.S., Penny, D.J., Schutze, G.E., Shekerdemian, L.S., editors. Rudolph's Pediatrics. 23rd edition, Volume 1. Sykesville, MD: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 1-7.
Ryan, C., Dadabhoy, H., Baranowski, T. 2018. Participant outcomes from methods of recruitment for videogame research. The Games for Health Journal: Research, Development, and Clinical Applications. 7(1):16-23.
Vincze, L., Rollo, M.E., Hutchesson, M.J., Callister, R., Thompson, D.J., Collins, C.E. 2018. Postpartum womens perspectives of engaging with a dietitian and exercise physiologist via video consultations for weight management: A qualitative evaluation. Healthcare. 6:8.
Arlinghaus, K.R., Moreno, J.P., Reesor, L., Hernandez, D.C., Johnston, C.A. 2017. Companeros: High school students mentor middle school students to address obesity among Hispanic adolescents. Preventing Chronic Disease. 14(e92).
Vezina-Im, L., Lebel, A., Gagnon, P., Nicklas, T.A., Baranowski, T. 2018. Individual correlates of sleep among childbearing women in Canada. Behavioral Sleep Medicine.
Raber, M., Patterson, M., Jia, W., Sun, M., Baranowski, T. 2018. Utility of eButton images for identifying food preparation behaviors and meal-related tasks in adolescents. Nutrition Journal. 17:32.
Dave, J.M., Cullen, K.W. 2018. Foods served in child care facilities participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program: Menu match and agreement with the new meal patterns and best practices. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior.
Nicklas, T.A., O'Neil, C.E., Fulgoni III, V.L. 2018. Association of usual intake of added sugars with nutrient adequacy. International Journal of Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics. 4:126.
Ebbeling, C.B., Klein, G.L., Luoto, P.K., Wong, J.M., Bielak, L., Eddy, R.G., Steltz, S.K., Devlin, C., Sandman, M., Hron, B., Shimy, K., Heymsfield, S.B., Wolfe, R.R., Wong, W.W., Feldman, H.A., Ludwig, D.S. 2017. A randomized study of dietary composition during weight-loss maintenance: Rationale, study design, intervention, and assessment. Contemporary Clinical Trials. 65:76-86.
Geng, X., Irvin, M.R., Hidalgo, B., Aslibekyan, S., Srinivasasainagendra, V., An, P., Frazier-Wood, A.C., Tiwari, H.K., Dave, T., Ryan, K., Ordovas, J.M., Straka, R.J., Feitosa, M.F., Hopkins, P.N., Borecki, I., Province, M.A., Mitchell, B.D., Arnett, D.K., Zhi, D. 2018. An exome-wide sequencing study of lipid response to high-fat meal and fenofibrate in Caucasians from the GOLDN cohort. Journal of Lipid Research.
Wood, A.C., Momin, S., Senn, M., Hughes, S.O. 2018. Pediatric eating behaviors as the intersection of biology and parenting: Lessons from the birds and the bees. Current Nutrition Reports.
Vaughan, E.M., Johnston, C.A., Cardenas, V.J., Moreno, J.P., Foreyt, J.P. 2017. Integrating CHWs as part of the team leading diabetes group visits: A randomized controlled feasibility study. The Diabetes Educator. 43(6):589-599.
Hilliard, M.E., Eshtehardi, S.S., Minard, C.G., Saber, R., Thompson, D.J., Karaviti, L., Rojas, Y., Anderson, B.J. 2018. Strengths-based behavioral intervention for parents of adolescents with type 1 diabetes using an mHealth app (Type 1 Doing Well): Protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial. JMIR Research Protocols. 7(3):e77.
Vezina-Im, L.A., Nicklas, T.A., Baranowski, T. 2018. Associations among sleep, body mass index, waist circumference, and risk of type 2 diabetes among US childbearing-age women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of Women's Health.
Jia, W., Li, Y., Qu, R., Baranowski, T., Burke, L.E., Zhang, H., Bai, Y., Mancino, J.M., Xu, G., Mao, Z.H., Sun, M. 2018. Automatic food detection in egocentric images using artificial intelligence technology. Public Health Nutrition.
Barco Leme, A.C., Baranowski, T., Thompson, D.J., Nicklas, T., Philippi, S.T. 2018. Sustained impact of the "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls – Brazil" school-based randomized controlled trial for adolescents living in low-income communities. Preventive Medicine Reports. 10:346-352. doi:10.1016/j.pmedr.2018.04.013.
Barco Leme, A.C., Thompson, D.J., Lenz Dunker, K.L., Nicklas, T., Philippi, S.T., Lopez, T., Vezina-Im, L.A., Baranowski, T. 2018. Obesity and eating disorders in integrative prevention programmes for adolescents: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 8(4):e020381. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020381.
Silva Garcia, K., Power, T.G., Beck, A.D., Fisher, J.O., Goodell, L.S., Johnson, S.L., O'Connor, T.M., Hughes, S.O. 2018. Stability in the feeding practices and styles of low-income mothers: Questionnaire and observational analyses. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 15(1):28.
Toro-Ramos, T., Paley, C., Wong, W.W., Pi-Sunyer, X., Yu, W.W., Thornton, J., Gallagher, D. 2017. Reliability of the echoMRI infant system for water and fat measurements in newborns. Pediatric Obesity. 25(9):1577-1583.
Smith, C.E., Follis, J.L., Dashti, H.S., Tanaka, T., Graff, M., Fretts, A.M., Kilpelainen, T.O., Wojczynski, M.K., Richardson, K., Nalls, M.A., Schulz, C.A., Liu, Y., Frazier-Wood, A.C., van Eekelen, E., Wang, C., de Vries, P.S., Mikkilä, V., Rohde, R., Psaty, B.M., Hansen, T., Feitosa, M.F., Lai, C.Q., Houston, D.K., Ferruci, L., Ericson, U., Wang, Z., de Mutsert, R., Oddy, W.H., de Jonge, E.A.L., Seppälä, I., Justice, A.E., Lemaitre, R.N., Sørensen, T.I.A., Province, M.A., Parnell, L.D., Garcia, M.E., Bandinelli, S., Orho-Melander, M., Rich, S.S., Rosendaal, F.R., Pennell, C.E., Kiefte-de Jong, J.C., Kähönen, M., Young, K.L., Pedersen, O., Aslibekyan, S., Rotter, J.I., Mook-Kanamori, D.O., Zillikens, M.C., Raitakari, O.T., North, K.E., Overvad, K., Arnett, D.K., Hofman, A., Lehtimäki, T., Tjønneland, A., Uitterlinden, A.G., Rivadeneira, F., Franco, O.H., German, J.B., Siscovick, D.S., Cupples, L.A., Ordovás, J.M. 2017. Genome-wide interactions with dairy intake for body mass index in adults of European descent. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research.
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