Location: Peanut Research
Project Number: 6044-42000-010-00-D
Project Type: Appropriated
Start Date: Apr 12, 2012
End Date: Apr 10, 2017
1. Determine the population dynamics of sexually reproducing Aspergillus flavus under field conditions. 2. Identify genes in Aspergillus flavus responsible for virulence during the infection process and elucidate the role of fungal gene products for overcoming peanut resistance mechanisms. 3. Determine the role of defensive peanut phytoalexins in mediating natural crop resistance against Aspergillus flavus.
Sclerotia of A. flavus will be collected from corn grown in a randomized complete block design consisting of four overhead irrigation treatments to provide different degrees of drought stress. Experiments involving natural field populations of A. flavus will be conducted during years 1 and 2. The same procedure will be repeated for years 3 and 4, except that corn ears will be sprayed with a conidial suspension of a non-toxigenic biocontrol strain (NRRL 21882 [from Afla-Guard® ] or AF36). Sclerotia will incubated on the surface of nonsterile soil (100% relative humidity) for 5-7 months. Ascospores from fertile sclerotia will be germinated to obtain progeny strains. To detect genetic recombination, total genomic DNA will be isolated from progeny strains. Recombination events due to independent assortment of chromosomes and crossing over will be detected by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and linkage disequilibrium/compatibility analyses. Genes encoding putative phytoalexin-detoxification enzymes (PDEs) will be cloned from pathogenic A. flavus strains. PDE production by A. flavus will be induced in culture by the presence of purified peanut phytoalexins or peanut seeds. cDNA libraries will be generated and used as templates to amplify candidate genes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Native in vitro-expressed proteins will be purified and their activity will be tested against a variety of purified peanut phytoalexins. Liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS) analysis of the phytoalexin samples after exposure to the various purified proteins will be used to detect potential enzymatic modifications of the phytoalexin compounds. Target PDEs will be analyzed from different genotypes of A. flavus and A. parasiticus to assess the genetic variability of these enzymes and thus predict the potential effectiveness of PDE inhibitors. A model system will be developed to screen PDE inhibitors. Pathogenicity tests will be conducted on single peanut seeds inoculated with A. flavus after the application of inhibitory compounds. The bioactivity of phytoalexins will be assayed against economically important plant pathogenic fungi grown on micro-plates. The dynamics of phytoalexin formation will be studied by first determining the most fungal-resistant (high phytoalexin producers) and fungal-susceptible (low phytoalexin producers) peanut genotypes from a core collection of 108 genotypes. Peanut seeds from genotypes will be subjected to different biotic and abiotic elicitors to elucidate changes in the composition of phytoalexins and to detect possible degradation products due to detoxification. The embryos and cotyledons from seeds will be wounded and inoculated with fungi and bacteria, then extracted and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/MS. Data obtained from analyses of the core collection of peanut genotypes will be used to identify peanut germplasm with disease resistance. To further examine phytoalexin detoxification (degradation) products, feeding experiments will be conducted in which fungi and bacteria are fed peanut phytoalexins followed by HPLC/MS/Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analysis.