1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
The objectives of this proposal are to develop improved varieties of green, yellow and marrowfat spring peas and green winter-hardy peas.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
Screen breeding lines for resistance to soilborne pathogens, viral pathogens and foliar fungal pathogens. Develop SCAR markers from previously identified PCR markers associated with tolerance to Aphanomyces root rot. Establish observation nurseries, preliminary yield trials and advanced yield trials in WA and ID. Evaluate breeding lines for cooking quality and nutritional quality. Documents Trust with USA Dry Pea and Lentil Council. Log 41108.
3. Progress Report:
In 2011, 20 advanced breeding lines and four check varieties (Aragorn, Ariel, Banner and Columbian) of green peas were evaluated in the advanced yield trials. The identical trials were planted at the Washington State University Spillman Farm (Pullman, Washington), Fairfield, Washington, Genesee, Idaho and Garfield, Washington. Mean yields at the four locations were: Fairfield 1802kg/ha; Genesee 2300kg/ha; Garfield 2828kg/ha and Spillman 2149kg/ha. 2011 was at least the third year of testing for ten of the lines and the first year of evaluation for three of the top ten lines. All the lines out-yielded Columbian and three of the advanced lines out-yielded Aragorn (usually the highest yielding check) by 8-10%. Seed size of the check lines ranged from 17.4 g/100 seeds (Ariel) to 20.4 g/100 seeds (Columbian). Seed size of the advanced lines ranged from 19.2 – 23.2 g/100 seeds. Nine breeding lines and four check varieties (Universal, DS Admiral, Delta and Carousel) of yellow peas were evaluated in the yellow pea advanced yield trials. Identical trials were planted at the Washington State University Spillman Farm (Pullman, Washington), Fairfield, Washington, Garfield, Washington and Genesee, Idaho. The mean yield at the four locations was: Pullman: 1763 kg/ha; Fairfield: 1736 kg/ha; Genesee: 2281 kg/ha and Garfield: 3365 kg/ha. 2011 was the first year for evaluating six of the nine breeding lines. Three of the lines, PS07100925, PS08101108 and PS08101004 out-yielded Delta by at least 15% and were in the Advanced Yield Trials for the first year. Yields of the advanced lines ranged from 1983 kg/ha to 2707 kg/ha, the average yields of the check cultivars ranged from 2033 kg/ha (DS Admiral) to 2571 kg/ha (Universal). Seed size of the check varieties ranged from 20.7 g/100 seeds (Delta) to 23.3 g/100 seeds. Seed size of the advanced lines ranged from 21.8-24.7 g/100 seeds. The 2011 preliminary yield trials were planted at the Spillman Farm. There were 31 entries and three checks in the green trial. Although 22 lines had greater yield than Aragorn, only two lines, PS09100029 and PS09100123, were significantly higher in yield than Aragorn. There was a great deal of non-uniformity in this trial (CV=18) and the LSD was very high. Seed weight among the retained green breeding lines ranged from 18.6-24.4 g/100 seeds compared with Aragorn, 19.7g/100 seeds and Banner, 19.4g/100 seeds. The yellow preliminary yield trials had 20 entries and two checks (Universal and Carousel). The highest yielding breeding lines yielded over 30% more than did the higher yielding check (Universal), however the differences were not significant at 5%. The LSD was very high for this trial. Seed weight among the retained breeding lines ranged from 21.2 to 25.7 g/100 seeds compared to 21.3 g/100 seeds for Universal and 22.6 g/100 seeds for Carousel. The winter pea advanced yield trials were planted at Garfield, Pullman and Dayton, Washington. The Garfield trial was lost due to excessive flooding. Pullman and Dayton were harvested. As no early-maturing lines survived in 2009-2010, none were planted in 2010-2011. The mean seed yield at Dayton was 3124 kg/ha and at Pullman it was 5777 kg/ha. In Pullman, Washington three breeding lines (PS0017018W, PS03100848W and PS0230F210) had yields in excess of 6000 kg/ha. Specter had the highest yield at Pullman (7076 kg/ha). In Dayton, the highest yielding breeding line was PS05300234W (5240 kg/ha) and the highest yielding check was Specter (4810 kg/ha). The breeding lines were evaluated for resistance to Fusarium wilt, Race 1 in Pullman, Washington and for resistance to Fusarium wilt Race 2 near Walla Walla, Washington. Progress relates to Objective 1: Identify and select improved germplasm and cultivars for pea, lentil, and chickpea through systematic evaluation under biotic and abiotic stress conditions to identify tolerant or resistant types for release to stakeholders. Sub-objective 1A: Develop pea, lentil and chickpea cultivars with broad adaptation to diverse production environments and with resistance to fungal and viral pathogens. It also relates to Objective 2: Identify genetic factors through classical breeding methods contributing to cold tolerance and winter hardiness in pea and lentil germplasm. Sub-objective 2A: Develop winter-hardy cultivars of pea and lentil with edible quality traits that are adapted to direct seeding. As the result of several projects, including this one, a set of 6 breeding lines with high levels of partial resistance to Aphanomyces root rot was released and registered. ARS PI monitoring activities to evaluate research progress included: phone calls/conference calls, on-site Cooperator/ARS meetings, email communications, discussions at professional conferences/meetings, discussions at annual workshops/conferences, review of Accomplishment Report.