1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
The overarching goal of this project is to develop methods to improve the safety of our food with regard to contamination by microbial toxins, mainly mycotoxins. In this regard, the project has a series of interconnected objectives. These objectives and their interrelationships are described as follows: Objective 1: Develop detection methods for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) to pinpoint food contaminants. Develop methods for identifying specific, "signature," volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as telltale indicators of microbial, mycotoxin contamination or insect infestation. This VOC detection will be applied to Objective 2. Objective 2: Develop methods for real-time detection of pathogen or insect contamination and toxins. Telltale VOCs will be used as real-time "signals" for detecting the presence of pathogens, mycotoxin-producing fungi or insects in crops or crop products, in post harvest storage or processing environments. This detectability will permit optimization of any intervention measures that are needed; which will be developed in Objective 3. Objective 3: Develop intervention technologies using plant VOCs / natural products as tools for the control of pathogens and insects. Specifically target the genetic control mechanisms through the use of chemosensitization and formulation development. Objective 4: Investigate the biochemical and genetic regulation of toxin production within fungal communities, with special emphasis on communication. Investigate the factors controlling aflatoxin catabolism and identification of the catabolic products.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
Identify the natural constituents responsible for resistance of certain varieties of tree nuts to growth of aflatoxigenic strains of aspergillus. Isolate and identify novel metabolites in sclerotia of Aspergillus and develop analytical methods for such compounds in order to assess exposure levels of tree nut orchards to the fungus. Identify genes involved in triggering mycotoxin biosynthesis using high-throughput bioassays. Assays involve use of deletion mutants, gene knockouts and complementation analysis. Discover natural compounds that disrupt functionality of gene targets identified. Develop biosensors for detecting toxic fungi in pre- and post harvest environments.
3. Progress Report:
This report documents progress for the parent Project 5325-42000-037-00D CHEMICAL APPROACHES TO ELIMINATE FUNGAL CONTAMINATION AND MYCOTOXIN PRODUCTION IN PLANT PRODUCTS which started February 2011. This project is organized into four objectives, as follows: 1) develop detection methodologies based on profiling volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) to identify and monitor food contaminants; 2) develop technologies and instrumentation to detect pathogens, insects, or toxins based on the activities described in the first objective; 3) identify and develop natural products to inhibit pathogens and insects directly or through chemosensitization; 4) identify factors from other microorganisms that either promote mycotoxin production or degrade mycotoxins. Substantial findings have been made over the past reporting period, with much of the research already published, or in press. These include identification and field-testing of volatiles as attractants to navel orangeworm. Identification of volatiles associated with fungal infection and aflatoxin contamination of almond. Identification of natural chemosensitizing agents using in vitro tests, then successfully testing them in in-vivo tests on plants. Several fungi were identified that have enzymatic capability of breaking down aflatoxin. But, also, some of these fungi, themselves, produce natural compounds that can be used as chemosensitizing agents to improve fungicide activity of commercial products.
Beck, J.J. 2012. Addressing the complexity and diversity of agricultural plant volatiles: a call for the integration of laboratory- and field-based analyses. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 60(5):1153-1157.