Location: Beneficial Insects Introduction Research
Project Number: 8010-22000-027-00-D
Project Type: Appropriated
Start Date: Dec 20, 2010
End Date: Jul 1, 2015
1. Investigate the behavioral ecology of host selection and colonization, and the process of invasion of invasive insect pest species of natural ecosystems, including Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB), and other invasive species such as Citrus Longhorned Beetle (CLB). 2. Discover and identify exotic natural enemies of the Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) and other invasive species such as Citrus Longhorned Beetle (CLB) of natural ecosystems, and evaluate their host specificity, host searching ability and efficacy as potential biological control agents within the United States. 3. Discover and identify native natural enemies of the Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) and other invasive species such as Citrus Longhorned Beetle (CLB), and evaluate their biology, ecology and efficacy as biological control agents within the United States, including development of surrogate rearing systems for natural enemies, as needed for APHIS eradication programs.
1.1.a. We will conduct a series of a series of field experiments to determine the distance A. glabripennis are attracted to Acer mono (Painted Maple). Potted A. mono saplings will be systematically positioned at varying distances from adult beetle infested trees in ALB infestations. Adult beetles will be collected, uniquely marked and released onto infested trees at predetermined distances from the potted A. mono, which will then be checked daily and the marked beetles identified and counted, and referenced to the position of release as a measure of attractive distance (attractive radius). Effects of positioning A. mono within vs. adjacent to infested landscapes will be evaluated in closed canopy, patch/clumped and open canopy landscapes to optimize detection of ALB using A. mono sentinel trees and provide landscape-specific guidelines for implementation in the U.S., Canada and Europe. 1.1.b. We will conduct a series of field experiments to develop an artificial lure for detection of adult ALB. We will determine the relative attraction of ALB to: (1) traps baited with different formulations and dosages; (2) trap position within host trees; (3) trap position within landscapes; and (4) method of deployment. Choice experiments will be conducted using a randomized complete block design, and treatments within block will be rotated daily. Traps will be checked daily, number and gender of each beetle recorded, removed and preserved. In addition, we will conduct a series of field experiments to determine the distance at which adult A. glabripennis beetles are attracted to the optimized artificial lure (see approach outlined above for Acer mono). 1.2. We will conduct field studies of the process of population spread and host colonization in invasive ALB populations in North America and Europe. We will use dendrochronology methods to date signs of attack on infested trees within different landscapes of two ALB infestations (Toronto, Canada; Treviso, Italy), thereby providing the timeline of attack and emergence. We will use GPS methods of infested trees to provide the spatial scale of population spread. Collectively, this approach will allow us to reconstruct the process of population spread and to development of predictive spatiotemporal models of population spread and host colonization on which to base implementation of a wide range of adaptive management strategies for existing introductions, and for restricting establishment, proliferation and spread of future introductions. 2. We will combine the geographic distribution of epidemic ALB populations with that of mixed deciduous forests to predict the geographic and host range of ALB, specifically focusing on noninvasive populations within natural ecosystems in South Korea and China. We will conduct foreign exploration to identify natural enemies of ALB within natural ecosystems and evaluate host specificity and efficacy as biological control agents of ALB. 3. In natural forests, we will identify native woodborers and associated native natural enemies of maple, and evaluate the later as biocontrol agents of ALB. We will identify native natural enemies parasitizing ALB within infestations in the U.S.