Location: Horticultural Crops Research
Project Number: 2072-22000-037-07-R
Project Type: Reimbursable
Start Date: Oct 1, 2010
End Date: Feb 28, 2015
The Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) is an invasive pest of small and stone fruits including but not limited to blueberries, blackberries, grapes, strawberries, raspberries, cherries, apple, peach, and plum. SWD is established throughout the west coast of the U.S. and Canada where it has caused significant economic damage to both fresh and processed fruit during 2008 and 2009, and urgent action is needed. The overarching objective of our proposal is to develop an integrated systems-based approach to managing manage SWD. We have created a Pacific Coast North American response team to respond that includes with expertise in entomology, horticulture, genomics, pest management consulting, agricultural production, economics, sociology, extension, and policy-making. The primary questions are based on limited knowledge of SWD biology, physiology and ecology or its economic and social/political impacts. Objective 1: Evaluate genetic, biological and ecological parameters of SWD. Objective 2: Develop a SWD management strategy to minimize infestation and reduce risk. Objective 3: Measure impact and success of SWD project. Objective 4: Synthesize existing and new information and provide real-time support.
Laboratory studies will determine the stage(s) of ripeness the fruits that are most susceptible to SWD, this information will assist growers with the timing of treatments in the field. A common cultivar of each fruit (blueberry, raspberry, blackberry, strawberry, grape, cherry) will be tested at various stages of ripeness in no-choice and choice studies. Tests will compare methyl eugenol, GF 120, fermenting yeast, apple cider vinegar, and ~20 other semiochemicals available for flies. Preliminary screening will first be done by observing 25 male or 25 female flies in a four-arm olfactometer for orientation towards the odor released from one arm and air (control) from the other three arms. Bioassays will be performed using the formulated products of all small fruit and stone fruit insecticides registered in the states of Oregon, Washington, and California, with known or suspected activity against Diptera. While laboratory assays cannot determine which pesticides will perform well in the field, they can determine which pesticides lack activity against this pest. Assays will be performed to determine both the direct spray and residual activity of each product. The experiments will be performed in a randomized complete block design with three replicates each containing 10 20 adult SWD. All bioassays will be performed in disposable 100 x 15 mm Petri plates.