Project Number: 1935-41440-020-00-D
Project Type: Appropriated
Start Date: Jun 25, 2010
End Date: Jun 24, 2015
Develop commercially viable processes based on chemical or enzymatic crosslinking that increase the market value of wool. 1A: Develop systems for functional modification of wool. 1B: Develop keratin modification systems. Develop extraction and derivatization processes for the production of commercially viable products from keratin. 2A: Extract and characterize keratin from wool. 2B: Form structural keratin materials for product development.
1A. Crosslinking and self-crosslinking systems can be used to modify wool. - Wool fabric of fine-gauge jersey knit suitable for military underwear will be processed by the ARS Process to confer anionic charge for subsequent reactivity with quaternary amine compounds to add antimicrobial resistance. This approach can be used to attach other compounds containing quaternary amino groups. It will also be used to improve physical/mechanical properties. 1B. Keratin can be self-crosslinked, crosslinked to wool, and crosslinked to agents for delivery to wool through TG-mediation. - How to retain or increase the strength of wool in processing will be addressed by applying KP with and without TG to a fine-gauge jersey fabric of fine yarn size required by Military specifications for ARS washable wool. The extracted keratins of domestic wool from fine to coarse will be applied to the fabrics. Their adhesion and permeation characteristics will be examined. The effects of these applications on strength, shrinkage and physical/mechanical properties will be determined. Making these applications to the fabric will enable the determination of how the various KP molecular weight fractions impact fiber strength and this will have implications for yarn processing before the fabric is knitted or woven. 2A. Oxidation, reduction, and enzyme systems can be used to isolate keratin with the chemical and structural integrity of wool. - Alkaline oxidation and reduction methods will be used to hydrolyze wool to convert keratin amides and disulfides to the corresponding acids. Smaller peptide and protein fragments from hydrolysis of wool will be composed of Type II keratin intermediate filament and keratin with microfibrillar structure. MALDI-TOF/TOF spectrophotometry will be used to identify these IFPs. Keratin functionality and end-use will be determined by the hydrolysis conditions used to break or restore disulfide likages. KP sites of reactivity such as amide, carboxyl, sulfoxide, sulfide, and thiosulfide will be identified. Solubilized wool fiber with will exhibit various transformed morphologies such as lyophilized powders. The isolated keratin materials will be characterized by molecular mass and functional group content to determine their unique characteristics as feedstock materials for developing novel products and applications. Hydrolysis systems will be designed to recover pure keratin in the form of IFPs as constituent microfibrillar and matrix proteins. The conditions of hydrolysis will range from mild to severe as governed by pH, exposure time, and temperature. One method will involve alkaline oxidation hydrolysis at pH 12 to 13. 2B. Keratin from wool can be tailored into adaptable forms which can be modified to meet the needs of bio-based commercial markets to replace petroleum-derived products. The physical forms and behaviors of these products will be controlled by the conditions of wool hydrolysis, keratin recovery from hydrolysis, and subsequent modification (s) of the extracted keratin.