1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
Pear ester has been identified as both a larval and adult attractant for codling moth. Management strategies utilizing pear ester are being developed along several avenues. Both basic and field studies are needed to optimize the rates of pear ester and blends with sex pheromone to achieve effective levels of control. 1. Characterize the emission rate of pear ester over time from field-aged microencapsulated formulations (MEC). 2. Examine larval behavior on host plants treated with various rates and deposition patterns of pear ester MEC. 3. Evaluate the effectiveness of adding pear ester to various insecticides to increase larval mortality including the role of crop and cultivar on activity. 4. Evaluate the interactions of pear ester and sex pheromone combined in various blend ratios on moth orientation responses. 5. Examine the effect of pre-exposure to various rates and blends of pear ester and sex pheromone. 6. Evaluate the effectiveness of various dispensers loaded with blends of pear ester and sex pheromone on male captures by virgin female-baited traps.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
1) Volatile recapture methodology will be used to quantify the emission rate of pear ester from the MEC formulation aged on apple foliage over a 35 d period. 2) Larval observations will be conducted using several cultivars of apple, pear, and walnut foliage treated with the MEC formulation. 3) Field bioassays will be conducted with a select group of new insecticides registered for codling moth to examine whether the pear ester MEC can enhance insecticidal activity. These studies will focus on the apple cultivar Granny Smith. 4) A piezoelectric sprayer will be used to examine the subtle interactions of pear ester and sex pheromone on adult orientation behaviors. 5) Moth antennal responses following pre-exposure to sex pheromone and pear ester blends will be examined using an EAG and flight tunnel tests will examine moth orientation behavior following exposure. 6) Dispensers loaded with various blends of sex pheromone and pear ester will be evaluated in replicated field plots using virgin female-baited sticky traps. Documents Trust with Trece. Log 34915.
3. Progress Report
The project goal is to develop new technologies with pear ester to manage codling moth. Studies evaluated the effectiveness of hand-applied dispensers and a sprayable microencapsulated formulation. Results found that dispensers loaded with sex pheromone and pear ester in combination with the use of sprayable formulation applied with insecticides improved management of codling moth. Monitoring of activities and progress on this project was accomplished by direct supervision of on-site employees, and the use of site visits, email and telephone to communicate with off-site collaborators.