Location:2011 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
1. Determine the mechanisms and rates of geographic dispersion of the Formosan Subterranean termite (FST) in Mississippi. 2. Develop and implement biologically-based cultural/ecological control technology against termites in urban environments and incorporate into an area-wide termite IPM project in Mississippi. 3. Provide an effective educational program in Mississippi to convey information on termite biology and current effective control measures.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
1. In order to best understand the spread of FST in south Mississippi, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence markers which identify maternal lineages will be used to track termite gene flow to infer possible routes of spread of FST in Mississippi. An approach of combining different markers with alternate modes of inheritance, such as nuclear and mtDNA markers can help us discern the maternal and paternal contributions to gene flow and population structure. 2. Our laboratory results showed that repellence and virulence of certain fungal conidia when applied to tree-based mulches will significantly reduce the suitability of these mulches as a habitat for FST. The performance of mulches treated with entomopathogenic fungi against FST foraging behavior, colony mortality, and product persistence will be investigated under field conditions. 3. The general approach will include dissemination of information to the public through newsletters, pamphlets, a website, workshops, and scheduled field days. Appropriate mobile displays with current information on the biology and control of FST will be developed for use in rural communities and in public schools and at meetings of local citizen groups in Mississippi.
3. Progress Report
Alate (winged termite) swarms are one of the visible signs of expansion of the Formosan subterranean termites in an area. Therefore, Formosan subterranean alates are currently being monitored during swarm season by use of a light trap. This trap is set in the same place and for the same duration yearly. The captured alates are counted daily. Data are used in comparison with previously collected data in order to obtain an understanding of population growth and expansion in this area. This data is being compared to determine the extent of the Formosan subterranean termite population growth in Poplarville, MS. Alates from this project are then used in the evaluation of egg production, in which paired kings and queens are provided an environment conducive for egg laying. Once egg production begins, eggs and soldier/worker ratios are counted weekly for one year. Captured alates are also used to evaluate mate selection, monogamy, and spermatogenesis (the formation of mature sperm). Data from this study will also be compared to previous year’s data to determine any change in breeding habits. These projects are ongoing. Landscape mulch is known to provide an excellent environment to Formosan subterranean termites, therefore, it is often recommended to homeowners to keep mulch products away from the foundation of their homes in order to aid in the prevention of a termite infestation. The desire to have meticulously landscaped yards often overrides this advice. Various types of ‘non-traditional’ mulches, such as recycled tires, cocoa shells, and coconut fiber, are currently being evaluated for their palatability to Formosan subterranean termites. The goal of this study is to find an alternative mulch type to recommend to property owners that will not harbor this invasive pest. Recent discoveries of Formosan damage to local root crops have led to further investigation of this issue. Studies have been conducted to determine the palatability and scope of damage to various species of potato and sweet potato specimens. This project is in the early stages, and further investigation is required. Various types of mulch, termite damaged products, and general termite information was displayed for the public including ways to prevent termite infestations in the home during the United States Department of Agriculture Blueberry Jubilee Tour June 11, 2011. Consultation has been provided throughout the year by identifying termite specimens, infestations in local areas, and answering questions via email and phone calls by explaining the necessary termite control tactics and technology. Progress in this project is monitored through Annual FST Technical Committee Meetings, reports, regular meetings with cooperators, routine phone calls, and email correspondence.