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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: COMBINING CONVENTIONAL AND MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE SEED COTTON VALUE

Location: Crop Genetics Research

2010 Annual Report


1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
Improve the value of cotton fiber for the grower by identifying key temporal and spatial cellular events which affect the development of ovule epidermal cells into fiber initials, and add value to seed cotton by modifying the amount and distribution of gossypol in the seed and vegetative plant parts.


1b. Approach (from AD-416)
Identify pleiotropic effects associated with a reduction in the number of fibers initiated on the ovule and the number and morphology of leaf trichomes or root hairs in pilose x fuzzless or pilose x fiberless seed crosses; identify key genetic components (transcription factors/enzymes) and cellular events occurring during the development of an ovule epidermal cell into an elongating fiber; determine the genetic control of gossypol content and the proportion of plus/minus forms via transmission genetics and mapping with molecular markers; evaluate if selection in early generations, using a half seed method to test gossypol content, is as effective for identifying the desired genotypes as testing progeny in later generations.


3. Progress Report
For Objective 1, the tests from 2009 were successful so the experiment was repeated in 2010 in the field and the greenhouse with several modifications. The modifications included: 1)removing smooth leaf lines from the study that were incorrectly reported to be hairy leaf; 2)adding a T2 locus line and its near isogenic counterpart. With this modification, the three loci known to be involved in determining hairy/smooth leaf (T1, T2, and T3) will be included; 3)adding lines of unknown genotype that were reported to be completely smooth without any hairs. Five synthetic genes were constructed with maximized codon usage for expression in Pichia pastoris. The synthetic genes are being tested for expression in Pichia pastoris. For Objective 2, DNA marker (SSRs) screening is continuing with new markers and genotypes being identified. Gossypol has two forms (plus and minus) with the minus form being more toxic. Crosses were made between high plus gossypol and high minus gossypol lines and the progeny will be evaluated to determine the inheritance of the two forms. Evaluation of the toxic compounds present in the seed, vegetative and reproductive cotton tissues revealed that there are differences in type and amount of compounds present in the various tissues.


4. Accomplishments


Review Publications
Romano, G.B., Sacks, E.J., Stetina, S.R., Robinson, A.F., Fang, D.D., Gutierrez, O., Scheffler, J.A. 2009. Identification and Genomic Location of a Reniform Nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) Resistance locus (Ren_ari) Introgressed from Gossypium aridum into Upland Cotton (G. hirsutum). Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 120:139-150

Last Modified: 10/16/2017
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