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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

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Butterflies and Bt corn. Allowing Science to Guide Decisions.
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Gatehouse, A. M. R., Ferry, N., & Raemaekers, R. J. M. (2002). The case of the monarch butterfly: A verdict is returned. Trends in Genetica, 18 (5), 249-251.

Gianessi, L. P., Silvers, C. S., Sankula, S., & Carpenter, J. (2002, June). Plant biotechnology: Current and potential impact for improving pest management in U.S. agriculture, An analysis of 40 case studies. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy.

Hellmich, R. L., Siegfried, B. D., Sears, M. K., Stanley-Horn, D. E., Daniels, M. J., Mattila, H. R., Spencer, T., Bidne, K. G., & Lewis, L. C. (2001, Oct. 9). Monarch larvae sensitivity to Bacillus thuringiensis-purified proteins and pollen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98 (21), 11925-11930.

Irwin, R., & Krishna, P. J. (2002). Nontarget impacts of Bt corn: A risk assessment. Information Systems for Biotechnology (ISB) News Report, April issue, pp. 6-8.

Losey, J. E., Rayor, L. S., & Carter, M. E. (1999). Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae. Nature, 399, 214.

Oberhauser, K. S., Prysby, M. D., Mattila, H. R., Stanley-Horn, D. E., Sears, M. K., Dively, G. P., Olson, E., Pleasants, J. M., Lam, W.-K. F., & Hellmich, R. L. (2001, Oct. 9). Temporal and spatial overlap between monarch larvae and corn pollen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98 (21), 11913-11918.

Pleasants, J. M., Hellmich, R. L., Dively, G. P., Sears, M. K., Stanley-Horn, D. E., Mattila, H. R., Foster, J. E., Clark, P. L., & Jones, G. D. (2001, Oct. 9). Corn pollen deposition on milkweeds in and near cornfields. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98 (21), 11919-11924.

Sears, M. K., Hellmich, R. L., Stanley-Horn, D. E., Oberhauser, K. S., Pleasants, J. M., Mattila, H. R., Siegfried, B. D., & Dively, G. P. (2001, Oct. 9). Impact of Bt corn pollen on monarch butterfly populations: A risk assessment. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98 (21), 11937-11942.

Shelton, A. M., & Sears, M. K. (2001). The monarch butterfly controversy: Scientific interpretations of a phenomenon. The Plant Journal, 27 (6), 483-488.

Stanley-Horn, D. E., Dively, G. P., Hellmich, R. L., Mattila, H. R., Sears, M. K., Rose, R., Jesse, L. C. H., Losey, J. E., Obrycki, J. J., & Lewis, L. C. (2001, Oct. 9). Assessing the impact of Cry1Ab-expressing corn pollen on monarch butterfly larvae in field studies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98 (21), 11931-11936.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (1995). Pesticide fact sheet for Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki Cry1(A)b delta-endotoxin and the genetic material necessary for the production (plasmid vector pCIB4431) in corn. EPA Publication No. EPA731-F-95-004. Washington, D.C.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2000). Bt plant-pesticides biopesticides registration action document.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2001, Oct. 16). Biotechnology corn approved for continued use. [News release].

Wraight, C. L., Zangerl, A. R., Carroll, M. J., & Berenbaum, M. R. (2000). Absence of toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis pollen to black swallowtails under field conditions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97, 7700-7703.

Zangerl, A. R., McKenna, D., Wraight, C. L., Carroll, M., Ficarello, P., Warner, R., & Berenbaum, M. R. (2001, Oct. 9). Effects of exposure to event 176 Bacillus thuringiensis corn pollen on monarch and black swallowtail caterpillars under field conditions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98 (21), 11908-11912.

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