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National Plant Disease Recovery System
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Plant Diseases That Threaten

U.S. Agriculture


Identified and Prepared For Under the

National Plant Disease Recovery System



The National Plant Disease Recovery System (NPDRS) is called for in Homeland Security Presidential Directive Number 9 (HSPD-9) which was issued in February of 2004.   The purpose of the NPDRS is to ensure that the tools, infrastructure, communication networks, and capacity required to mitigate the impact of high consequence plant disease outbreaks are such that a reasonable level of crop production is maintained in the U.S.


Each recovery plan listed below is intended to provide a brief primer on a threatening disease, assess the status of critical recovery components, and identify disease management strategies including research, extension, and education priorities. These recovery plans are not intended to be stand-alone documents that address all of the many and varied aspects of a plant disease outbreak and all of the decisions that must be made and actions taken to achieve effective response and recovery.   They are, however, documents that will help USDA and others stakeholders guide efforts directed toward preparation for and recovery from new plant diseases in the U.S.


The plans are a cooperative effort of university, industry, and government scientists sponsored by the American Phytopathological Society (APS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).  The pathogens discussed in these plans have been nominated as critical threats to U.S. agricultural production and reviewed at annual workshops of APS and USDA held in April of 2006, April of 2007, October of 2008, March of 2011, and April 2013.   The content and recommendations of those meetings including presentations and relevant NPDRS activities can be viewed at




Table 1. Disease recovery plans with corresponding chair/lead author, status and links.







STATUS & Links*

Asiatic brown rot of stone fruits

 Monilia polystroma   Kirk Cox

Australian grapevine yellows
Apple proliferation
European stone fruit yellows
Flavescence doree
Palm lethal yellowing
Pine witches' broom

 Candidatus Phytoplasma
 C. P. mali
 C. P. prunorum
 C. P. vitis
 C. P. palmae
 C. P. pini
  Nigel Harrison

Being developed

Bacterial leaf blight and leaf streak of rice

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola

Jan Leach


Citrus black spot Guignardia citricarpa

Megan Dewdney

Being developed

Citrus leprosis

Citrus leprosis virus

Ron Brlansky


Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC)

Xylella fastidiosa

Megan Dewdney


Cotton leaf curl viral disease complex

Cotton leaf curl virus

Judy Brown  


Cowpea mild mottle Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) Judy Brown  


Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic

  Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic   Virus (CGMMV)   Bryce Falk


Cyst and rootknot nematode diseases

Heterodera spp. and Meloidogyne spp.

Tom Powers


Brown stripe downy mildew and Philippine downy mildew of corn

Sclerophthora rayssiaevar. zeae and Peronosclerospora philippinensis

Clint Magill


Huanglongbing (HLB) of citrus or citrus greening

Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, L. africanus, and L. americanus

Mark Hilf

Completed and updated 

Late wilt of corn

Harpophora maydis

John Leslie

Completed and updated 

Laurel wilt of avocado

Raffaelea lauricola

Randy Ploetz


Laurel wilt of redbay and related species

Raffaelea lauricola

Jason Smith

Updated January 2015(Publication)

Plum pox or sharka

Plum pox virus (PPV)

Marc Fuchs


Potato wart

Synchytrium endobioticum

Ray Hammerschmidt

Completed and updated

Ralstonia bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops and geranium

Ralstonia solanacearum, race 3, biovar 2

Jeffrey Jones



Rathayibacter poisoning 

Rathayibacter toxicus

Tim Murray

Updated March 2015

Red leaf blotch (RLB)

of soybean

Phoma glycinicola

Glen Hartman


Scots pine blister rust

Cronartium flaccidum

Jason Smith

Completed and being updated

Stem rust of wheat (Ug99)

Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici

Erick De Wolf


Thousand cankers disease of black walnut 

Geosmithia morbida

Ned Tisserat


Tree and shrub diseases caused by P. kernoviae

Phytophthora kernoviae

Mike Benson

Updated January 2015

Wheat blast

Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum  

Barbara Valent 

Completed and updated 

Zebra chip of potato 

Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum  

Charles Rush  

Completed (Webinar) 

*Disease recovery plans that are completed and completed and being updated are linked in this website including webinar or publication.


Two overriding concerns discussed at workshops and meetings are how to approach with an array of documented and ever increasing list of exotic diseases and pests that may enter the United States and how to prepare for those threats that are yet unknown.


One such approach is the development of generic recovery plans that will cover groups of pathogens and pests based on a core set of common attributes. These generic recovery plans would account for all types of pathogens that could arrive or emerge and would serve as the templates to which agent-specific and system-relevant information could be added to optimize the utility of the plan.


When a new pathogen is detected, one of the generic plans could be used to quickly assemble a new, agent-specific recovery plan. How many and what types of generic recovery plans are needed will be determined and validated.


The existing list of NPDRS recovery plans provides a good starting point. Future APS/USDA workshops and NPDRS meetings at the APS Annual Meetings are planned to resolve this issue and to develop new plans and to update completed recovery plans.

In 2016, a feature article titled 'The Evolution of a Process for Selecting and Prioritizing Plant Diseases for Recovery Plans' was published by an organized team of plant pathologists that developed the concept of generic recovery plan templates for groups of pathogens and diseases with similar biological characteristics and disease management approaches.


At the last NPDRS Meeting on 2 August 2 2015 in Pasadena, CA, Guidelines for Updating Recovery Plans was discussed and proposed to be implemented by lead authors.


Please direct any questions or comments concerning NPDRS to Tim Widmer.