Location: Food Surveys Research GroupTitle: Food Patterns Equivalent Intakes from Food: Mean Amounts Consumed per Individual, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2017-2018, Tables 1-4
Submitted to: Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group
Publication Type: Research Technical Update
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/26/2020
Publication Date: 10/28/2020
Citation: Bowman, S.A., Clemens, J.C., Friday, J.E., Moshfegh, A.J. 2020. Food Patterns Equivalent Intakes from Food: Mean Amounts Consumed per Individual, What We Eat In America, NHANES 2017-2018, Tables 1-4. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: https://www.ars.usda.gov/nea/bhnrc/fsrg/fped.
Interpretive Summary: The Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2017-2018 has been developed for the foods reported in the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2017-2018. The main purpose of FPED is to assess the American eating patterns with respect to the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommendations. The main Food Patterns (FP) components include: Fruit, Vegetables, Grains, Dairy, Protein Foods, Added Sugars, Oils, Solid Fats, and Alcoholic Drinks. Many of these main FP components have been further divided, resulting in a total of 37 FP components. There are four sets of mean intake tables, one each for the following four demographic categories: age-gender (27 groups), race/ethnicity (20 groups), annual household income as percentage of poverty (20 groups), and annual household income in dollars (20 groups). Each table set provides mean intake estimates of the 37 Food patterns per individual, per day. The mean intakes of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains were well below the DGA recommendations. On average, individuals 2 years and over consumed less than one cup equivalent (eq.) of fruit of which 25 percent was consumed as fruit juice. White potatoes were the most consumed single vegetable (0.36 cup eq.) followed by tomatoes (0.26 cup eq.). Whole grains intake was less than one ounce equivalent (0.84 oz. eq.). The estimated mean intake of total meat, poultry, and seafood was 4.47 ounce equivalents. Non-Hispanic Asians consumed 1.29 cup equivalents of total fruit followed by Hispanics who consumed 1.20 cup equivalents; non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks consumed less than 1 cup equivalent, each. Non-Hispanic Asians consumed the highest amount of whole grains (1.2 oz. eq.), and all other race/ethnicity groups consumed less than one ounce equivalent, each. All four race-ethnic groups consumed less than one-fifth of their total grain intakes as whole grains, instead of one-half recommended by the DGA. Individuals living in households with income below 131 percent of poverty level consumed lower amounts of total fruit (0.85 cup eq.), total vegetables (1.19 cup eq.), and higher amount of added sugars (18.81 teaspoon equivalents) than individuals living in households with income above 350 percent of poverty. This information is useful to nutritionists and nutrition policymakers in assessing the diet quality of Americans from different demographic backgrounds and can be used to develop appropriate target-specific nutrition intervention programs.
Technical Abstract: The mean intakes of the 37 Food Patterns, per day, per individual were estimated from day 1 dietary intake data of the 7,122 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017-2018 and the Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2017-2018. The mean intake data are presented in four sets of tables, one each, for the following demographic categories: age-gender (27 groups), race/ethnicity (20 groups), annual household income as percentage of poverty (20 groups), and annual household income in dollars (20 groups). The main FP components include: Fruit, Vegetables, Grains, Dairy, Protein Foods, Added Sugars, Oils, Solid Fats, and Alcoholic Drinks. Many of the main FP components are further subdivided, so as to enhance the analytical use of FPED. The estimated mean intake of total fruit for all individuals, 2 years and over, was 0.93 cup equivalent of which 0.23 cup equivalent was consumed as fruit juice, 0.24 cup equivalent as citrus, melons and berries, and 0.45 cup equivalent as fruits other than citrus, melons and berries. The estimated mean intake of total vegetables was 1.39 cup equivalents of which 26 percent was potatoes and about 19 percent was tomatoes. The whole grains intake was less than one ounce equivalent, and it was far below the Dietary Guidelines recommendations that one-half of the total grains consumed should be whole grains. The estimated mean intake of total dairy was 1.53 cup equivalents of which 48 percent was cheese and 45 percent was fluid milk. The mean intake estimates for meat (uncured), poultry, and cured meat were 1.45, 1.55, and 0.92 ounce equivalents, respectively. On average, Americans consumed 36 grams of solid fats, which is composed of fat present in tropical oils, partially or fully hydrogenated vegetable oils, meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy; 29 grams of oils which includes vegetable oils other than tropical oils, and the fat present in nuts, seeds, and seafood. Americans consumed 16.93 teaspoon equivalents or 71 grams of added sugars. Non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks consumed less than 1 cup equivalent of total fruit, and non-Hispanic Asians and Hispanics consumed a little more than 1 cup equivalent, each. The Dietary Guidelines recommend consuming less than 50 percent of total fruit as fruit juice, and the mean intakes of fruit juice were less than 50 percent of total fruit intake for all four race-ethnic groups. Non-Hispanic Asians consumed the highest amount of whole grains (1.2 ounce equivalents), and the lowest amount of solid fats (26 grams) and added sugars (10.2 teaspoon equivalents). Hispanics consumed about one-fifth cup equivalent of legumes, estimated as vegetables. On average, individuals living in high income households with family income over 350 percent of poverty level consumed lower amount of added sugars as compared with individuals living in low income households with family income under 131 percent of poverty (15.19 vs. 18.81 teaspoon equivalents, respectively).