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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Wooster, Ohio » Corn, Soybean and Wheat Quality Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #367409

Research Project: Genetic and Biochemical Basis of Soft Winter Wheat End-Use Quality

Location: Corn, Soybean and Wheat Quality Research

Title: Experimental cake-baking method applicable to nonchlorinated flour

Author
item Baik, Byung-Kee
item Donelson, Thomas

Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/23/2019
Publication Date: 1/13/2020
Citation: Baik, B.V., Donelson, T.S. 2020. Experimental cake-baking method applicable to nonchlorinated flour. Cereal Chemistry. 97(2):394-403. https://doi.org/10.1002/cche.10255.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/cche.10255

Interpretive Summary: Cookies and cakes constitute the major uses of soft wheat, demanding rigorous efforts for screening wheat breeding lines for baking performance in the development of wheat varieties. Experimental cookie baking test methods are well-established and commonly performed in the quality evaluation of wheat breeding lines and varieties, whereas the cake baking test is rarely practiced, mainly due to its low throughput and the requirement for flour chlorination. The American Association of Cereal Chemists International (AACCI) Approved Method 10-90.01 for the determination of cake baking quality requires wheat flour to be chlorinated before testing. The safety concerns and the inconvenience associated with flour chlorination make the method unfit for the routine evaluation of wheat breeding lines and varieties for cake baking quality potential, demanding the development of an experimental cake baking method applicable to wheat flour without the chlorination step. We determined the effects of shortening, sugar and water proportions on the quality of non-chlorinated flour cakes to identify a formula yielding cakes of comparable quality to those baked from chlorinated flours according to the Approved Method, and eventually developed a modified experimental cake baking method applicable to non-chlorinated flour. The use of non-chlorinated flour required reductions of the shortening and sugar proportions in the formula to produce cakes showing a dome-shaped contour, similar to the cakes produced from chlorinated flours. Reductions of the shortening and sugar proportions from 50 and 140% to 35 and 130%, respectively, increased the center height, center-to-edge height ratio, and volume of non-chlorinated flour cakes. Non-chlorinated flour cakes baked with 35% shortening, 130% sugar and a fixed 120% or optimum water proportion were comparable in center height to, and greater in volume than, the chlorinated flour cakes baked with the Approved Method. A significant correlation (P<0.05) was observed between the volumes of non-chlorinated flour cakes baked with the modified formula and those of the corresponding chlorinated flour cakes baked according to the Approved Method. The volumes of non-chlorinated flour cakes baked with the modified formula exhibited correlations (P<0.05) with kernel hardness and all four SRC test values of wheat flour. AACCI Approved Method 10-90.01 with modifications of the formula to 35% shortening, 130% sugar and a fixed water proportion of 120% could be an effective experimental cake baking test applicable to non-chlorinated wheat flour. With no need for flour chlorination, the modified experimental cake baking method provides wheat breeders, quality testing laboratories, millers and bakers with an efficient and effective tool for the evaluation of wheat quality for making cakes.

Technical Abstract: Background and objectives: Approved Method 10-90.01, Baking Quality of Cake Flour, requires flour chlorination, which poses safety concerns and is inconvenient. The effects of shortening, sugar and water proportions on the quality of non-chlorinated flour cakes were determined to modify the Approved Method and make it applicable to non-chlorinated flour. Findings: The reduction of shortening and sugar proportions to 35 and 130%, respectively, increased the center height, center-to-edge height (C/E) ratio, and volume of non-chlorinated flour cakes. Non-chlorinated flour cakes baked with 35% shortening, 130% sugar and a fixed 120% or optimum water proportion were similar in center height to, and greater in volume than, the chlorinated flour cakes baked according to the Approved Method. The volumes of non-chlorinated flour cakes baked with the modified formula showed significant correlations (P<0.05) with those of the corresponding chlorinated flour cakes baked according to the Approved Method. Conclusions: The Approved Method with modifications of the formula to 35% shortening, 130% sugar and a fixed water proportion of 120% has the potential to be an effective cake baking test applicable to non-chlorinated wheat flour. Significance and novelty: With no need for chlorination, the modified cake baking test delivers improved efficiency in the evaluation of wheat flour quality for making cakes.