Location: Corn, Soybean and Wheat Quality ResearchTitle: Solvent retention capacity (SRC) application to assess soft wheat flour quality for making white-salted noodles
|JEON, SOOJEONG - Pusan National University|
|KWEON, MEERA - Pusan National University|
Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/1/2019
Publication Date: 3/5/2019
Publication URL: https://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/6471193
Citation: Jeon, S., Baik, B.V., Kweon, M. 2019. Solvent retention capacity (SRC) application to assess soft wheat flour quality for making white-salted noodles. Cereal Chemistry. 96(3):497-507. https://doi.org/10.1002/cche.10150.
Interpretive Summary: Noodles are one of the most popular wheat foods prepared and consumed in many Asian countries and are increasingly consumed in many regions of the world. Wheat flour of adequate protein content and strength yielding a smooth-surfaced, continuous dough sheet through crumbly dough mixing and sheeting, which leads to minimal cooking loss and delivers desirable textural properties to noodles, as well as to minimal oil absorption during frying for instant noodles, is required for making noodles. Low water absorption and low damaged starch content are also believed to be preferred flour characteristics for making noodles. Accordingly, blends of hard and soft wheat flours are often used for making white salted and instant fried noodles. Our recent studies have shown that many eastern U.S. soft winter wheat varieties possess much stronger protein than typical soft wheat, making them potentially suitable for noodle making. However, previous research on the possible uses of eastern U.S. soft wheat and appropriate testing methods of flour quality for making white salted noodles is limited. We explored the potential use of the solvent retention capacity (SRC) test, which is accepted as a standard method and widely used by the eastern U.S. soft wheat industry for the end-use performance estimation of soft wheat flour, in the evaluation of flour quality for making white salted noodles. The lactic acid SRC value and gluten performance index (GPI), which is calculated by dividing the lactic acid SRC value by the sum of the sodium carbonate and sucrose SRC values, showed significant relationships with weight gain and texture of cooked noodles. Eastern soft wheat possessing relatively strong gluten protein produced white-salted noodles with desirable dough sheeting properties, noodle cooking characteristics and textural properties. The SRC test effectively identifies eastern U.S. soft wheat possessing protein characteristics suitable for making white salted noodles, and the GPI serves as a reliable predictor for firmness of cooked noodles. The SRC test could be effectively used by wheat breeding programs to screen breeding lines in the development of noodle wheat varieties, and as an efficient tool for noodle manufacturers to identify wheat grain and flour desirable for the production of noodles.
Technical Abstract: Background and objectives: Gluten development of wheat flour under a limited amount of water is essential for dough sheeting and cutting in preparation of noodle, and for cooking and textural properties of noodles. Soft wheat flour of relatively high gluten strength, low damaged starch content, and low water absorption could be suitable for the requirement. The study was aimed at exploring the potential uses of solvent retention capacity (SRC) test for evaluation of soft wheat flour quality for making white-salted noodles. Findings: Ten soft wheat varieties exhibited large differences in SRC values. Lactic acid SRC and gluten performance index (GPI) showed significant correlations with weight gain and firmness of the cooked noodles. Among the flour characteristics, GPI appeared to be the best predictor of cooked noodle firmness, with the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.96, p < 0.010). Conclusions: Flour SDS sedimentation volume, lactic acid SRC, and GPI were significantly correlated with weight gain and texture of cooked noodle. Soft wheat flours with GPI >0.60 were found to be suitable for making white-salted noodles. Significance and novelty: Solvent retention capacity analysis could be successfully applied for selecting soft wheat cultivars suitable for white-salted noodles. For this sample set, among the flour quality parameters, GPI was the most reliable predictor for firmness of cooked noodles and could be effectively used for identification of noodle wheat varieties and grains by wheat breeding programs and noodle manufacturers.