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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Wooster, Ohio » Corn, Soybean and Wheat Quality Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #319155

Title: Relationship between physicochemical characteristics of flour and sugar-snap cookie quality in Korean wheat cultivar

item KANG, C - National Institute Of Crop Science - Korea
item JUNG, J - National Institute Of Crop Science - Korea
item Baik, Byung-Kee
item PARK, C - Chonbuk National University

Submitted to: International Food Research Journal
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/16/2013
Publication Date: 4/1/2014
Publication URL:
Citation: Kang, C.S., Jung, J.U., Baik, B.-K., Park, C.S. 2014. Relationship between physicochemical characteristics of flour and sugar-snap cookie quality in Korean wheat cultivar. International Food Research Journal. 21(2):617-624.

Interpretive Summary: Cookies are among the most popular soft wheat products, and are prepared in a simple dough mixing and baking process from basic ingredients including flour, sugar, shortening and leavening agents. Dough properties, as well as appearance and texture of baked products, are the major quality issues considered by bakers in the commercial production of cookies, and are largely determined by flour characteristics. Soft wheat flour is predominately used for making cookies, but substantial differences in cookie baking performance among flours exist due to variations in wheat varieties and growing environments. Therefore, to ensure the use of consistently well-performing wheat flour in the production of cookies and the development of wheat varieties possessing excellent cookie baking quality potential, it is necessary to determine the flour characteristics required for making cookies. In the experimental cookie baking test for wheat flour, diameter is commonly measured as a representative quality index. Thirty wheat cultivars were analyzed for physicochemical properties of flour and cookie baking quality to identify the significance that flour components and biochemical properties have in the baking of cookies. We observed negative correlations between cookie diameter and particle size, damaged starch, protein characteristics and four solvent (water, sodium carbonate, sucrose and lactic acid) retention capacity values of flour, and formulated a prediction equation for the estimation of cookie diameter using two different solvent retention capacity values and a protein strength measurement parameter, which explained 84% of the variability in cookie diameter. The information obtained from this study will improve our understanding of the wheat flour characteristics required for making cookies, and contribute to the possible development of a convenient selection tool for the identification of flour to be used by bakers and help breeders in the development of varieties suitable for making cookies.

Technical Abstract: The relationship of physicochemical properties of flour, including particle size of flour, damaged starch, SDS-sedimentation volume, gluten content and four solvent retention capacity (SRC) values with cookie baking quality, including cookie diameter and thickness was evaluated using 30 Korean wheat cultivars grown in the 2011-2012 seasons. Cookie quality and flour physicochemical properties were significantly influenced by year, cultivar and their interactions. Dahong, Dajoong, Goso, Joa, Namhae, Ol, Olgeuru and Uri produced larger cookie than other Korean wheat cultivars. Significant positive correlations were found among physicochemical properties of Korean wheat cultivars. Cookie diameter negatively correlated with cookie thickness (r = -0.986, P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with particle size, damaged starch, protein characteristics and all four SRC values (P < 0.001). A prediction equation developed using sodium carbonate SRC, SDS sedimentation volume and sucrose SRC provides a reliable estimation of cookie diameter. This equation could be explained 84% of the variability in cookie diameter. Therefore, a combination of SRC values, especially sodium carbonate and sucrose, and SDS-sedimentation volume could be used to select wheat lines with suitable for cookie baking in Korean wheat breeding populations.