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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Athens, Georgia » U.S. National Poultry Research Center » Poultry Microbiological Safety & Processing Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #316259

Research Project: INTERVENTION STRATEGIES FOR FOODBORNE PATHOGENS DURING POULTRY PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING

Location: Poultry Microbiological Safety & Processing Research

Title: Evaluation of the addition of charcoals to broiler diets on the recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium during grow-out and processing

Author
item Wilson, Kimberly
item Bourassa, Dianna
item DAVIS, ADAM - University Of Georgia
item FREEMAN, MARTHA - University Of Georgia
item Buhr, Richard - Jeff

Submitted to: Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/5/2015
Publication Date: 3/1/2016
Citation: Wilson, K.M., Bourassa, D.V., Davis, A.J., Freeman, M.E., Buhr, R.J. 2016. Evaluation of the addition of charcoals to broiler diets on the recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium during grow-out and processing. Poultry Science. 95(3):694-704.

Interpretive Summary: Two experiments evaluated feed additives on the recovery of Salmonella from broilers during grow-out and after processing. In experiment 1, chicks were inoculated with Salmonella and the feed additive treatments were: basal control, 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charcoal, or 0.12% fatty acids. Broilers were euthanized and the large intestines were sampled to confirm Salmonella colonization at 3, 4 and 6 weeks, and pen litter was sampled weekly. At 6 weeks, broilers fed fatty acids had no recovery of Salmonella with direct plating but 75% after sample enrichment. In experiment 2 the feed treatments were: basal control; 0.3% bamboo charcoal; 0.3% activated bamboo charcoal; or 0.3% pine charcoal. At placement, chicks were challenged with Salmonella and the large intestines sampled at 1 to 6 weeks. Weekly the pH of the crop and small intestine was measured from 1 chick/pen and the litter sampled. At the end of grow-out broilers were processed. Results showed that broilers had colonized at 1 and 2 weeks. Similar to experiment 1, the recovery of Salmonella from the litter was not significantly different among treatments, however an overall decrease in recovery by 4 weeks with direct plating occurred. The pH of the small intestine and the crop were not different among treatments and the crop pH for all treatments were significantly higher at week 1 compared to weeks 2 thru 6. Litter recovery of Salmonella was not significantly different among treatments, charcoal had minimal effect on the recovery in the large intestine, but a significant reduction on the recovery from breast skin (a 20% decrease) was observed.

Technical Abstract: Two experiments evaluated prebiotics added to feed on the recovery of Salmonella in broilers during grow-out and processing. In experiment 1, "seeder" chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and placed with penmates. Treatments were: basal control, 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charcoal, or 0.12% acids. The ceca from seeders and penmates were sampled to confirm Salmonella colonization at 3, 4 and 6 wk, and pen litter was sampled weekly. At 3 wk, charcoal fed chicks had significantly lower cecal recovery (37% lower) of Salmonella via direct plating but no difference at 4 wk. At 6 wk, broilers fed fatty acids had no recovery of Salmonella from ceca with direct plating but 15% with enrichment. In experiment 2 the treatments were: basal control; 0.3% bamboo charcoal; 0.3% activated bamboo charcoal; or 0.3% pine charcoal. At placement, 2 seeders were challenged with Salmonella and commingled with penmates and ceca sampled at 1 and 2 wk, and ceca from 5 penmates/pen at 3 to 6 wk. Weekly the pH of the crop and duodenum was measured from 1 penmate/pen and litter sampled, and at the end of grow-out broilers were processed. Results showed that penmates had colonized at 1 and 2 wk. Cecal Salmonella showed no difference except at 4 wk, when activated bamboo charcoal had a 18% lower recovery of Salmonella (enrichment) compared to the control. Similar to experiment 1, the recovery of Salmonella from the litter was not significantly different among treatments, however an overall decrease in recovery by 4 wk with direct plating occurred. The pH of the duodenum and the crop were not different among treatments. Crop pH (6.0) for all treatments were significantly higher at wk 1 compared to wk 2 thru 6. Litter recovery of Salmonella was not significantly different among treatments, charcoal had minimal effect on the recovery in the ceca, but significant reductions on the recovery from breast skin (a 25 to 40 percentage point decrease) was observed.