|Chau, Hoa - Rose|
|MARAIS, JANNIE - Ocean Spray Cranberry|
|HOM, KELLIE - University Of Maryland|
|VAKKALANKA, MALATHI - Rutgers University|
|DI, RONG - Rutgers University|
|YAM, KIT - Rutgers University|
|KHOO, CHRISTINA - Ocean Spray Cranberry|
Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/14/2015
Publication Date: 5/14/2015
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/61661
Citation: Hotchkiss, A.T., Nunez, A., Strahan, G.D., Chau, H.K., White, A.K., Marais, J.P., Hom, K., Vakkalanka, M.S., Di, R., Yam, K., Khoo, C. 2015. Cranberry xyloglucan structure and inhibition of Escherichia coli adhesion to epithelial cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 63:5622-5633. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b00730.2015.
Interpretive Summary: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) lead to millions of doctor office visits per year and antibiotics have limited effectiveness due to bacterial resistance and the reoccurrence of infections. Natural substances which could treat and prevent UTIs could be useful for those suffering from this condition. Cranberry juice has been known to be an effective treatment for UTIs due to phenolic red pigments compounds. However, the latest clinical trial data suggests that other cranberry compounds play a role in preventing UTIs. We report for the first time that cranberry plant cell wall carbohydrate fractions are also effective in preventing the adhesion of E. coli to urinary tract as well as colon epithelial cells. These carbohydrates are present in commercial cranberry juice. This new information will allow for a better functional food approach to treat and prevent UTIs in the future.
Technical Abstract: Cranberry juice has been used to treat urinary tract infections based on scientific reports of proanthocyanidin anti-adhesion activity for Escherichia coli as well as folklore. Xyloglucan oligosaccharides were also detected in cranberry juice and the pulp remaining following commercial juice extraction. Cranberry fractions derived from pectinase-macerated pulp contained oligosaccharides with arabino-xyloglucan structure. A novel xyloglucan was detected based on tandem mass spectrometry analysis of an ion at m/z = 1055 that was determined to be a branched, three hexose, four pentose oligosaccharide consistent with arabino-xyloglucan structure. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis provided through bond correlations for the alpha-L-Araf (1'2) alpha-D-Xylp (1'6) beta-D-Glcp sequence proving the S-type cranberry xyloglucan structure. Cranberry xyloglucan-rich fractions inhibited the adhesion of both E. coli 1161 for T24 human bladder epithelial cells and E. coli O157:H7 for HT29 human colonic epithelial cells. Therefore, xyloglucan oligosaccharides represent another cranberry bioactive component with E. coli anti-adhesion activity.