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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Athens, Georgia » U.S. National Poultry Research Center » Poultry Microbiological Safety and Processing Research Unit » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #311481

Title: Addition of charcoals to broilers feeds did not impact Salmonella Typhimurium colonization or persistence, or the pH of the crop or duodenum during a 6 wk growout

item WILSON, KIMBERLY - University Of Georgia
item Bourassa, Dianna
item DAVIS, ADAM - University Of Georgia
item FREEMAN, MARTHA - University Of Georgia
item Buhr, Richard - Jeff

Submitted to: International Poultry Scientific Forum
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/20/2014
Publication Date: 1/26/2015
Citation: Wilson, K., Bourassa, D.V., Davis, A.J., Freeman, M.E., Buhr, R.J. 2015. Addition of charcoals to broilers feeds did not impact Salmonella Typhimurium colonization or persistence, or the pH of the crop or duodenum during a 6 wk growout. International Poultry Scientific Forum. 94:(E-Suppl.1)M40. pp.12-13, 2015.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of 3 types of charcoals added to feeds at 0.3% on Salmonella colonization and persistence, and the pH of the crop and duodenum during a 6 wk growout. A total of 1,280 male chicks (32/pen) were placed into 40 pens (10 pens for each of the 4 dietary treatments). On the day of placement, 2 seeder chicks/pen were orally gavaged with 3 x 107 nalidixic acid resistant Salmonella Typhimurium, and returned to the pens to commingle with penmates. The feed treatments were: basal control, 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.3% activated bamboo charcoal, and 0.3% pine charcoal that were added to both starter (1 to 14 d) grower (14 to 28 d), and finisher (28 to 42 d) feeds. At wk 1 and 2, ceca from 1 seeder and 1 penmate broiler/pen were sampled and cultured for Salmonella. From the penmate broiler the crop and duodenum were exposed to record the luminal pH. Ceca were Salmonella positive in all chicks (both seeders and penmates) sampled at wk 1 and 2. By wk 3 Salmonella prevalence in ceca detected by direct plating had begun to decrease to 34%, at wk 4 to 24%, at wk 5 to 23%, and by wk 6 to 12%. Following defeathering the Salmonella prevalence for enriched breast skin samples was significantly higher (P<0.05) at 40% for the control, compared to 10% for bamboo charcoal, 15% for activated bamboo charcoal, and 0% for pine charcoal. The pH of the crop decreased weekly but there were no detected feed treatment differences in pH within any wk. The pH at 1 wk for the crop ranged from 5.84 to 6.44 across treatments and differed compared to wk 2 to 6 (3.83 to 6.12). Duodenal pH varied minimally from 5.8 to 6.1. Overall, the small amount of feed chicks consume in the first wk may contribute to the higher pH of the crop and enable Salmonella from the seeders to spread to and colonize penmate chicks. Adding charcoals at 0.3% to broiler starter diets did not prevent Salmonella colonization, but charcoals added to grower diets may have hastened Salmonella elimination from ceca and resulted in significantly lower Salmonella recovery from breast skin samples following defeathering.