Location: Corn, Soybean and Wheat Quality ResearchTitle: Bran characteristics and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour Author
Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/8/2014
Publication Date: 7/1/2014
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/59740
Citation: Cai, L., Choi, I., Lee, C., Park, K., Baik, B.-K. 2014. Bran characteristics and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour. Cereal Chemistry. 91(4):398-405. Interpretive Summary: Consumer’s interest in eating whole grain wheat foods are increasing, owing to the well-established, numerous health benefits, such as reduced risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, inferior product quality and sensory acceptance of whole grain wheat foods to the refined wheat foods are still big obstacles for increased acceptance and consumption of whole grain foods especially with school children. Differences in product quality and sensory acceptance between whole grain and refined wheat foods stem from the presence of bran, which gives nutritional benefits, but at the same time negatively affect product quality and sensory acceptance. There is, however, little information available for bran characteristics desirable for baking bread and their genotypic variation. We determined the genetic variation in wheat bran characteristics and identified the characteristics influencing the functional properties of whole grain wheat flour (WWF) for baking bread. We observed considerable variations in composition of bran among wheat varieties, especially in protein, insoluble fiber (IDF) and phytate content. Soft and club wheat bran generally lowers in (IDF) and phytate content as compared to hard wheat bran. WWFs with hard wheat bran generally required more water and longer mixing time, and produced smaller loaf volume of bread than WWFs of soft and club wheat bran. IDF content, phytate content and water retention capacity of bran exhibited negative relationships with loaf volume of WWF bread. The information gained for the study could be used to predict the performance of wheat bran in WWF bread-baking and to screen wheat varieties for production of whole grain foods with enhanced product quality.
Technical Abstract: Varietal variations in physical and compositional characteristics of bran and their associations with bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF) were investigated using bran obtained from roller milling of 18 wheat varieties. Bran was characterized for composition including protein, fat, ash, dietary fiber, phenolic compounds and phytates. Soft and club wheat bran generally lowers in insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and phytate content (40.7-50.6% and 10.3-18.8 mg/g, respectively) as compared to hard wheat bran (46.0-51.3% and 16.5-22.2 mg/g, respectively). Bran of various wheat varieties was blended with flour of a hard red spring wheat at a ratio of 1:4 to prepare WWFs for determination of dough properties and bread baking quality. WWFs with hard wheat bran generally exhibited higher dough water absorption and longer dough mixing time, and produced smaller loaf volume of bread than WWFs of soft and club wheat bran. IDF content, phytate content and water retention capacity of bran exhibited a significant relationship with loaf volume of WWF bread, whereas no relationship was observed between protein content of bran and loaf volume of bread. Negative correlation between total dietary fiber content and changes in crumb springiness and cohesiveness during storage was found, indicating that fiber has adverse effects on crumb texture of WWF bread during storage. It appears that soft and club wheat bran, probably owing to relatively low IDF and phytate content, has smaller negative effects on mixing properties of WWF dough and loaf volume of bread than hard wheat bran.