Skip to main content
ARS Home » Northeast Area » Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania » Eastern Regional Research Center » Dairy and Functional Foods Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #295275

Title: Effects of uniquely processed cowpea and plantain flours on wheat bread properties

item Onwulata, Charles
item Thomas-Gahring, Audrey
item ODURO-YEBOAH, CHARLOTTE - Food Research Institute - Ghana
item Hotchkiss, Arland
item White, Andre

Submitted to: Journal of Food Processing and Preservation Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/9/2014
Publication Date: 4/2/2014
Publication URL:
Citation: Onwulata, C.I., Thomas-Gahring, A.E., Oduro-Yeboah, C., Hotchkiss, A.T., White, A.K. 2014. Effects of uniquely processed cowpea and plantain flours on wheat bread properties. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation Research. DOI:10.1111/jfpp.12246.

Interpretive Summary: Foods that provide health-enhancing benefits are needed to help Americans fight obesity and poor health. Two food products, cowpeas (black-eye peas) grown in the U.S., and plantains, a type of green banana grown in tropical countries can be processed into powders used for baking bread. This study showed that cowpea or plantain can replace up to 20 percent of all-purpose flour used in machine-baked bread without problems. Cowpeas provides protein, and plantains provide minerals and vitamins, and may help to reduce the level of blood sugar rise after consumption.

Technical Abstract: The effect of incorporating uniquely processed whole-seed cowpeas or plantain flours at 10 or 20 g/100 g in all-purpose flour on paste viscosity and bread-baking properties in model bread was determined. Flours from plantains processed as follows: unblanched plantains dried at 60 degrees C (PLC), soaked in hot water (100 degrees C) for 2 min, blanched (PLB), or blanched citric acid (PLCA) for 2 min, reduced magnesium levels, and increased vitamin A. All plantains increased viscosity of pastes, reduced rapidly available glucose (RAG), and increased bread loaf size. PLB RAG values were reduced from 8.5 to 4.5 ug glucose/mg. Whole-seed cowpeas containing the hulls processed by soaking in water (CPW), in alkali water (CPA), or treated with enzyme (CPE) reduced stachyose and raffinose for CPW and CPA significantly (P less than 0.05), and CPE eliminated them completely. Incorporating cowpea flours into model breads changed their shapes and sizes. CPW (10 g/100 g) and CPA (20 g/100 g) increased loaf size significantly (P less than 0.05). CPE flours reduced bread loaf size and increased browning. CPW RAG from 8.5 to 2.8 ug glucose/mg. These results show positive functional and potential health enhancing benefits of using uniquely plantains and whole-seed cowpea flours. These flours can be incorporated into all-purpose flour bread up to 20 g/100 g with improved physical properties, and better glycemic responses.