Project Number: 8042-32420-006-00-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated
Start Date: Mar 17, 2016
End Date: Mar 16, 2021
Objective 1: Investigate the mechanism(s) of introduction, transference, and survival of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), Salmonella, and Listeria to fresh produce at the farm level. Sub-objective 1a. Investigate the population dynamics of non-pathogenic E. coli and non-O157 EHEC in soils amended with biological soil amendments (BSA). Sub-objective 1b. Determine factors affecting persistence of EHEC, Salmonella and Listeria in soils amended with BSA. Objective 2: Determine the effects of multispecies biofilm formation on the survival, persistence, and dissemination of pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce processing environments and on contamination of fresh produce. Sub-objective 2a. Assess the biofilm formation capacity of foodborne bacterial pathogens in fresh produce processing environments and on fresh produce surfaces; identify environmental bacterial strains or species that promote multispecies biofilm formation on fresh produce or in processing environments. Sub-objective 2b. Elucidate factors controlling foodborne bacterial pathogen interactions in multispecies biofilms on fresh produce or in processing environments. Sub-objective 2c. Determine biofilm formation of non-O157 shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) on abiotic and biotic surfaces. Objective 3: Investigate intervention strategies to minimize contamination of EHEC, Salmonella and Listeria on fresh produce at the farm level. Sub-objective 3a. Determine the role of Brassica vegetables in controlling enteric pathogens in soil. Sub-objective 3b. Develop pre-harvest interventions to control Listeria and Salmonella in cantaloupe. Objective 4: Develop effective intervention technologies to reduce pathogen survival and growth during processing and retail operations. Sub-objective 4a. Identify and validate food safety preventive controls for water application during fresh-cut processing. Sub-objective 4b. Investigate novel antimicrobials to control enteric pathogens on herbs. Objective 5: Assessment of microbial safety of fresh produce grown under non-conventional farming practices. Sub-objective 5a. Determine the effect of reclaim water on microbial safety of fresh produce grown in urban farming.
Mechanisms of introduction and transfer of pathogens on fresh produce (lettuce, spinach, leafy greens, fresh herbs) at the farm level will be investigated. Population dynamics of non-O157 Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and non-pathogenic E. coli in soils amended with biological soil amendments (BSA: manure, compost) will be investigated. Factors affecting growth and survival patterns of EHEC, Salmonella and Listeria in soils amended with BSA will be determined. The role of stress response genes on the survival of enteric pathogens in manure or manure-amended soils will be evaluated. Bacterial analysis will include the use of microbial culture and molecular methods to detect target pathogens in samples. Biofilm formation capacity of EHEC and Listeria monocytogenes will be assessed under conditions partially simulating produce production and processing environments. Bridge bacteria that promote the incorporation of pathogen in multispecies biofilms will be isolated and identified. Confocal microscopy, mass spectrometry, and metagenomic sequencing will be used to decipher the complexity of the multispecies biofilms. Intervention strategies will be investigated to minimize pathogen contamination at the farm level. Field studies will be conducted to determine the role of Brassica vegetables in killing EHEC, Salmonella, and Listeria in soil. Biological controls such as lactic acid bacteria will be evaluated at the farm level to control Listeria contamination on cantaloupe. Food safety preventive controls during fresh-cut processing operations will be identified and validated to reduce pathogen survival and growth on fresh produce. Validation of free chlorine concentration, role of produce particulates, and pathogen inactivation kinetics will be investigated to minimize pathogen cross-contamination. Fresh produce will be irrigated with reclaimed water to assess its microbial safety. Microbial risk assessment models will be used to determine microbial safety of fresh produce.