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ARS Home » Midwest Area » East Lansing, Michigan » Sugarbeet and Bean Research » Research » Research Project #428477

Research Project: Nondestructive Quality Assessment and Grading of Fruits and Vegetables

Location: Sugarbeet and Bean Research

Project Number: 5050-43640-002-00-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated

Start Date: May 19, 2015
End Date: May 18, 2020

Objective:
1. Enable new commercial imaging and spectroscopic methods to determine fruit and vegetable internal quality and maturity. 2. Enable new, economical, accurate, automated, in-orchard methods for commercial apple quality tracing and grading.

Approach:
1) Improvements will be made in the method and technique for measuring the optical absorption and scattering properties of horticultural and food products that may be considered homogeneous or layered in the tissue structure. Factors affecting the optical property measurements, including light source configuration, the geometry and surface roughness of samples, and inverse algorithm, will be evaluated by using numerical simulation (e.g., Monte Carlo and finite element) and experiment for phantom tissues and real samples, so as to improve the measurement accuracy and reproducibility. New methods and algorithms will be developed for accurate measurement of the optical properties of layered food products. Experiments will be carried out to measure the optical properties of horticultural products like apple, orange, and pickling vegetable. The measured optical properties will be used to predict quality and condition of the products. 2) Research will be conducted on the development of a new sensing technique for more effective quality evaluation of horticultural and food products. Specifically, different light illumination and image acquisition methods will be investigated for detecting properties and characteristics of plant tissues at different depths. Light penetration characteristics in plant tissues will be studied through computer simulations and experimental tests. Image processing algorithms will be developed for extraction of important features from the reflectance images to characterize internal quality (including defect) of fruit and vegetable. A new sensing system that incorporates conventional imaging or hyperspectral imaging technique with the optimal lighting configuration and dedicated image processing algorithms will be assembled and evaluated for real time detection of internal quality for fruit and vegetable. 3) Research will be conducted to develop cost effective, automated in-orchard apple sorting technology. New and improved functions will be developed and incorporated into the machine vision system to allow more effective sorting and grading of different varieties of apple for color, size and defect. More efficient and reliable sorter and bin filler designs in modular format will be proposed, assembled and tested in laboratory and field. A new method for handling individual fruit bins will be proposed and implemented so that no fruit bins would be left half-filled and the possible down time for the harvest crew resulting from the bin handling would be eliminated or minimized. The new and improved sorting system will be integrated with either a self-propelled or tractor-driven harvest aid platform for automatically sorting and grading apples into two or three quality grades as well as enhancing harvest efficiency and worker safety. Laboratory and field tests and demonstrations will be carried out, in close collaboration with commercial equipment manufacturer, growers, and extension personnel, to facilitate the development and transfer of the technology to the end user.