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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Fort Pierce, Florida » U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory » Citrus and Other Subtropical Products Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #403875

Research Project: Determination of Flavor and Healthful Benefits of Florida-Grown Fruits and Vegetables and Development of Postharvest Treatments to Optimize Shelf Life an Quality for Their Fresh and Processed Products

Location: Citrus and Other Subtropical Products Research

Title: Can mandarins be blended with orange juice and still maintain orange juice flavor?

item Plotto, Anne
item Bai, Jinhe
item Mattia, Matthew
item MANTHEY, JOHN - Retired ARS Employee
item Jeffries, Kristen
item FAN, ZHEN - University Of Florida
item Sun, Xiuxiu
item OLMEDO, GABRIELA - Orise Fellow
item Zhao, Wei
item STOVER, EDDIE - Retired ARS Employee
item BALDWIN, ELIZABETH - Retired ARS Employee

Submitted to: Florida State Horticultural Society Meeting
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/29/2023
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Since the citrus greening disease (aka Huanglongbing - HLB) was detected in Florida in 2005, orange (Citrus sinensis) juice production has decreased by more than 60%. Over the years, some mandarins (Citrus reticulata) and mandarin-like hybrids with Poncirus trifoliata in their pedigree have shown tolerance to the disease and have the potential to make up the deficit in the volume of oranges. However, current FDA rules allow for only 10% mandarin juice in orange juice. If citrus, other than C. sinensis, could be added to orange juice in amounts greater than 10%, it would give more flexibility to processors under the current production environment where oranges are declining due to citrus greening. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of blending mandarins and other citrus hybrids with orange juice on overall orange flavor. A 10-member panel was trained to distinguish orange from mandarin flavor using reference standards, rate sweetness, sourness and bitterness, and to describe potential off flavors. Fruits were washed, sanitized, and manually juiced. Blends were made with 60:30 Valencia:Hamlin juice, and 10% mandarin juice including ‘Superna’, FF-5-51-2, and hybrids having P. trifoliata in their background, ‘SunDragon’ and FF-1-89-11. These blends were compared with the standard 60:40 Valencia:Hamlin juice. Soluble solids concentration (SSC) and titratable acidity were also measured. Panelists found no differences in orange flavor among samples. Mandarin flavor was slightly higher in blends containing FF-5-51-2, and sweetness and sourness higher in blends containing FF-1-89-11, in comparison with the reference 60:40 Valencia:Hamlin juice. When FF-5-51-2, SugarBelle, and Superna were blended with orange juice at ratios of 60:20:20 Valencia:Hamlin:mandarin, mandarin flavor was increased in comparison with 60:40 Valencia: Hamlin juice. However, there was still no difference in orange flavor in any of the samples. These results show the potential of using mandarin hybrids to complement orange juice without changing the typical orange flavor of the juice. Future studies will be performed to determine whether untrained consumer panelists can perceive flavor differences in such blends, as they may not necessarily perceive subtle differences that are perceived by trained panelists who have years of experience tasting orange juice.