Location: Healthy Processed Foods ResearchTitle: Low acrylamide flatbreads prepared from colored rice flours and relationship to asparagine and proximate content of flours and flatbreads
|LI, XUEQI - University Of California, Davis|
|WANG, SELINA - University Of California, Davis|
Submitted to: Foods
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/22/2021
Publication Date: 11/24/2021
Citation: Li, X., Kahlon, T.S., Wang, S.C., Friedman, M. 2021. Low acrylamide flatbreads prepared from colored rice flours and relationship to asparagine and proximate content of flours and flatbreads. Foods. 10(12). Article 2909. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122909.
Interpretive Summary: Interest in the distribution in food, consumption, and adverse effects in humans of potentially toxic acrylamide arises from the fact that heat processing (baking, cooking, frying) induces the formation of acrylamide in plant-based foods, as supported by numerous reports. Because acrylamide is reported to induce numerous adverse effects that include antifertility, carcinogenicity, and neurotoxicity, there is a need to reduce the dietary consumption of acrylamide. The main objective of the present collaborative study between WRRC with the University of California, Davis was to determine the acrylamide content using a validated chromatography/mass spectrometry method of 12 new flatbreads using flours prepared from the following pigmented rice seeds: Black Japonica, Chinese Black, Brown Long Grain, Brown Short Grain, Indian Brown Basmati, Organic Brown Jasmine, French Camargue, Jade Pearl, Purple Sticky, Himalayan Red, Wehani, and Wild. Because of their low acrylamide levels, these flatbreads might be safe to consume. Moreover, the rice cultivars used to prepare the flatbreads are reported to contain multiple biologically active, health-promoting compounds, so the resulting flatbreads have the potential to ameliorate adverse effects of several diseases, an aspect that merits further study. As part of this effort, we also determined using standard methods the proximate composition protein, fat, carbohydrate, dry matter, ash (mineral), and moisture content of the flatbread. The result show that consumers will be able to select flatbreads with a high protein and low-fat content.
Technical Abstract: Acrylamide is a potentially toxic compound present in many plant-based foods such as coffee, breads, and potato fries that is reported to have carcinogenic, neurotoxic, and anti-fertility properties in vivo, suggesting the need to keep the acrylamide content of widely consumed food as low as possible. To contribute to this, we previously reported on low-acrylamide experimental flatbreads determined by a sensitive HPLC/MS/MS method. Because pigmented rice is reported to contain biologically active, health-promoting phenolic and anthocyanin compounds, the objective of this study was to potentially enhance beneficial properties of flatbread by evaluating the acrylamide content and proximate composition of 12 novel flatbreads prepared from the following commercial pigmented rice flours: Black Japonica, Chinese Black, Brown Long Grain, Brown Short Grain, Indian Brown Basmati, Organic Brown Jasmine, French Camargue, Jade Pearl, Purple Sticky, Himalayan Red, Wehani, and Wild. Although acrylamide levels varied widely, ranging (in µg/Kg or parts per billion) from 4.9 (Long Grain Brown) to 50.8 (Chinese Black), the absolute values are low, suggesting that they might be safe to consume. The observed variations in protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash, dry matter, and water content determined by proximate analysis and reported health benefits of pigmented rice might also be useful to relate the composition of the flatbreads to their nutritional qualities and health properties.