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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Albany, California » Western Regional Research Center » Healthy Processed Foods Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #380325

Research Project: Prevention of Obesity Related Metabolic Diseases by Bioactive Components of Food Processing Waste Byproducts and Mitigation of Food Allergies

Location: Healthy Processed Foods Research

Title: High protein gluten free snack foods based on whole grain flour and vegetables

Author
item Kahlon, Talwinder
item Haff, Ronald - Ron
item Brichta, Jenny

Submitted to: Food and Nutrition Sciences
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/8/2021
Publication Date: 5/11/2021
Citation: Kahlon, T.S., Haff, R.P., Brichta, J.L. 2021. High protein gluten free snack foods based on whole grain flour and vegetables. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 12(5):407-417. https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2021.125031.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2021.125031

Interpretive Summary: Novel snack foods comprised of various combinations of whole grains and vegetables were evaluated for consumer acceptability. Snacks containing Buckwheat (B), Buckwheat + Peanut meal + Kale (BPK), Sorghum + Peanut meal + Okra (SPO), and Sorghum + Peanut meal + Okra + Jalapeno (SPOJ) were judged for appearance, aroma, flavor and texture. While all snacks were found to be similar for appearance, aroma, and flavor, texture of BPK and SPO were rated equal and more favorable than BW and SPOJ. Acceptability ratings were generally high; SPOJ (94%), BPK (93%), SPO (89%), and B (85%), with no difference observed between SPOJ and BPK. The snack foods tested evaluated are high in protein, low in fat, gluten free and generally high in nutritional content as compared to most traditional snack foods. Compared with a typical variety of potato chips, these snacks were 48-79% lower in fat and 2.4-7.9 times higher in protein. While ideally suited for commercial production, these snacks can also be easily prepared at home with minimal equipment requirements, thus offering a healthy alternative for all consumers including vegetarians, vegans, and those hypersensitive to gluten.

Technical Abstract: Novel snack foods comprised of various combinations of whole grains and vegetables were evaluated for consumer acceptability in sensory booths by seventy-one inhouse volunteers. Specifically, snacks containing Buckwheat (B), Buckwheat + Peanut meal + Kale (BPK), Sorghum + Peanut meal + Okra (SPO), and Sorghum + Peanut meal + Okra + Jalapeno (SPOJ) were judged for appearance, aroma, flavor and texture on a scale from one to five, as well as on overall acceptability on a binary scale. While all snacks were found to be statistically similar for appearance, aroma, and flavor, texture of BWPK and SPO were rated significantly equal and more favorable than BW and SPOJ. Acceptability ratings were generally high; SPOJ (94%), BPK (93%), SPO (89%), and B (85%), with no significant difference observed between SPOJ and BPK (p = 0.05). The snack foods evaluated are high in protein, low in fat, gluten free and generally high in nutritional content as compared to most traditional snack foods. Compared with a typical variety of potato chips, these snacks were 48-79% lower in fat and 2.4-7.9 times higher in protein. While ideally suited for commercial production, these snacks can also be easily prepared at home with minimal equipment requirements, thus offering a healthy alternative for all consumers including vegetarians, vegans, and those hypersensitive to gluten.