Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/11/2021
Publication Date: 1/1/2022
Citation: Fan, X. and Niemira, B.A. 2022. Technologies in Food Science, First Edition. Edited by Vicente M. Gómez-López and Rajeev Bhat, Pages 53-73. John Wiley & Sons,Hoboken, NJ
Technical Abstract: Gamma rays are photons, waves of electromagnetic radiation, with high energy, and high penetration ability. Gamma rays are a more commonly used type of ionizing radiation for food application compared to electron beam and X-rays. This chapter discusses generation of gamma rays from cobalt-60 (Co-60) and cesium-137 (Cs-137) sources, basic mechanisms of gamma rays (Compton effect), direct and indirect effects, recent developments in food applications, and factors affecting its efficacy. Topics covered are dose and dosimetry, interaction of ionizing radiation with food and microorganisms, human pathogen inactivation, phytosanitary treatments, shelf life extension, preservation of meat, poultry, fresh produce and low moisture foods, effect on irradiation efficacy of temperature, water activity, and atmosphere.