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Research Project: Ecology of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) in North America

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Title: Full Genomic Sequencing of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Isolates from the 2004–2006 US Outbreaks Reveals Associations of Viral Genetics to Environmental Variables

item PALINSKI, RACHEL - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)
item PAUSZEK, STEVEN - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)
item BURRUSS, DYLAN - New Mexico State University
item Savoy, Heather
item Humphreys Jr, John
item PELZEL-MCCLUSKEY, ANGELA - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
item Arzt, Jonathan
item Peters, Debra
item Rodriguez, Luis

Submitted to: Molecular Ecology Resources
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/15/2020
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Vesicular stomatitis (VS) outbreaks in the western USA occur cyclically approximately every 8-10 years. Historic phylogenetic evidence based on a 450nt region of the P coding sequences suggests that the initial introduction is typically a single viral lineage closely related to those circulating in endemic areas of Mexico. In 2004, a VS outbreak initiated in southern NM and TX and spread as far north as northern CO. Subsequently, in 2005, VS cases appeared in 9 states (AZ, CO, ID, MT, NE, NM, TX, UT and WY) and in 2006 VS was detected only in WY. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that a single VS New Jersey virus (VSNJV) lineage caused the 2004 outbreak, and re-emerged in 2005 and 2006. The mechanism of VS emergence and re-emergence remain unclear. Here, we use near full-length genomic sequences of 60 viral strains isolated from 2000-2006 in the US and Mexico to determine their phylogeographic relationships and environmental variables associated with outbreak dynamics. The results confirmed that a single VSNJV lineage caused the 2004-2006 US outbreaks and its closest ancestor was a virus circulating in Colima, Mexico in 2004. Furthermore, rather than a simple geographic relationship, specific viral genetic sublineages or patristic groups were associated to seasonal environmental variables, particularly evaporative demand, soil moisture, and precipitation. The results suggest a functional role for environmental factors in shaping the evolution and spread of VSNJV in the USA.