|HIJAZ, FARAJ - University Of Florida|
|GMITTER, FRED - University Of Florida|
|BALDWIN, ELIZABETH - Retired ARS Employee|
|BIOTTEAU, ALICE - Ensat|
|LECLAIR, CLOTILDE - Ensat|
Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/26/2020
Publication Date: 4/6/2020
Citation: Hijaz, F., Gmitter, F., Bai, J., Baldwin, E.A., Biotteau, A., Leclair, C., Mccollum, T.G., Plotto, A. 2020. Effect of fruit maturity on volatiles and sensory descriptors of four mandarin hybrids. Journal of Food Science. 85/1548-1564. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15116.
Interpretive Summary: Mandarins are increasingly popular because of their delicate flavor and they are easy to peel. In this study, two new mandarin hybrids and two commercial cultivars were evaluated for eating quality by sensory evaluation over multiple harvests for two years, and sugars, acids and volatiles were analyzed. There was a significant year effect, with the 2011-2012 season being earlier than 2010-2011. Optimum harvest for eating quality of 411 was late January to mid-February, Sugar Belle® fruits were best tasting when harvested mid-January, and February was the best month for harvesting Murcott and Temple. Sweetness and perception of ripeness were increasing with soluble solids over titratable acidity, and the volatiles acetaldehyde and ethanol. Different volatiles imparted tangerine or fruity-non-citrus flavor in each of the genotypes, mainly esters, aldehydes, alcohols and some monoterpenes.
Technical Abstract: Mandarins (or tangerines) are mainly consumed as fresh fruits due to the ease of peeling and desirable flavor. Sweetness, acidity and flavor of mandarin are the most important criteria for consumer preference. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of harvest date on sensory and chemical components of four mandarin cultivars (Murcott, 411, Temple, and ‘LB8-9’ Sugar Belle®). Volatiles were extracted from the headspace of juice samples with solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The optimum harvest window for eating quality of 411 was late January to mid-February (SSC/TA: 11.3-14.0), Sugar Belle® fruits were best tasting when harvested mid- to end of January (SSC/TA: 14.1-16.1), and February was the best month for harvesting Murcott (SSC/TA: 13.10-18.0) and Temple (SSC/TA:10.3-12.50). Sensory perception of sweetness, ripeness and juiciness increased as SSC/TA increased while sourness and bitterness decreased. Pumpkin flavor, an indicator of overripe fruit, was mainly noticed late in the season. Tangerine flavor tended to decrease, whereas fruity-non-citrus flavor tended to increase with fruit maturity. Monoterpenes were the most abundant volatiles and tended to decrease with fruit maturity, whereas alcohols, esters and aldehydes increase. Aldehydes, esters and alcohols were positively correlated with sweetness, ripeness, juiciness, and fruity characteristics, and negatively with sourness and bitterness. On the other hand, monoterpenes were positively correlated with bitterness and tangerine flavor, and negatively correlated with sweetness and fruity-non-citrus flavor. The highest number of esters was found in Temple, whereas Murcott and 411 were high in aldehydes.