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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Fort Pierce, Florida » U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory » Citrus and Other Subtropical Products Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #371919

Research Project: Quality, Shelf-life and Health Benefits for Fresh, Fresh-cut and Processed Products for Citrus and Other Tropical/Subtropical-grown Fruits and Vegetables

Location: Citrus and Other Subtropical Products Research

Title: Aroma and Flavor Profile of Raw and Roasted Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms Using a Panel Trained with Aroma Chemicals

Author
item DU, XIAOFEN - Texas Woman'S University
item SISSONS, JOANNA - Texas Woman'S University
item SHANKS, MARCUS - Texas Woman'S University
item Plotto, Anne

Submitted to: LWT - Food Science and Technology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/14/2020
Publication Date: 1/1/2021
Citation: Du, X., Sissons, J., Shanks, M., Plotto, A. 2021. Aroma and Flavor Profile of Raw and Roasted Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms Using a Panel Trained with Aroma Chemicals . LWT - Food Science and Technology. 138:110596. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.110596.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.110596

Interpretive Summary: Global mushroom production has grown dramatically with estimated commercial value over $75 billion in 2017. Agaricus bisporus is the most commonly consumed edible mushroom in the US; however, research on mushroom sensory properties is limited. In this study, chemical solutions were developed and used to anchor aroma and flavor attributes of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms. Such singular references have the advantage of being consistent and can be easily replicated by different laboratories. Using these references, significant differences in sensory properties were observed among these three mushrooms; cooking reduced those aroma and flavor differences. The results contributed to the growing body of research on mushroom sensory properties and potential use in savory products. This information could be beneficial to farmers, food industry, and stakeholders in the mushroom product value-chain. The reference solutions could be adopted by other researchers or industry peers for Agaricus bisporus sensory evaluation.

Technical Abstract: Agaricus bisporus is the most commonly consumed edible mushroom in the US, but research on mushroom sensory properties is limited. This study characterized aroma and flavor of three raw and roasted Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, white button, crimini, and portobello, using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. Sixteen sensory attributes were developed and included definitions and reference standards made with chemical solutions representing aromas perceived in the samples. Descriptors included mushroom, earthy, dark meat, roasted, hay, soybean, potato, woody, fried, cabbage, sulfur, salty, sweet, umami, astringent, and bitter. All three raw Agaricus bisporus possessed key sensory characters of mushroom, earthy, hay, soybean, potato, and woody. Raw portobello and crimini had significantly higher (p<0.05) flavor intensities in mushroom, earthy, dark meat, woody, cabbage, umami, and bitterness than white button. When cooked, sensory profiles significantly (p<0.05) shifted to dark meat, roasted, and fried notes, and portobello showed the highest intensity of dark meat flavor. Conversely, hay, woody, and earthy notes decreased for all cooked mushrooms.