Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/17/2020
Publication Date: 2/17/2020
Citation: Solaiman, D., Ashby, R.D., Erhan, S.Z. 2020. Soaps. In Shahidi, F. editor. Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products. 7th Edition. Hoborken, NY: Wiley and Sons. 6, p. 41-56. https://doi.org/10.1002/047167849X.bio034.pub2.
Technical Abstract: Soap is a general term referring to materials that serve to remove undesirable soils from clothing, body/skin, and other articles. Archeological discoveries described the making and the use of a soap-like substance as far back as ca. 5000 years ago. Throughout the ages, the soap-like substance having a cleaning function has evolved into many physical forms, starting with the most familiar bar soaps to the more recent liquid soaps and the washing gels. Along with the evolution of the physical form of soap, the scientific basis of its washing ability had also been studied which lead to the invention of new chemicals to suit various applications and formulations. In this chapter, a brief history of the discovery of soap will be presented. The theoretical basis of the cleaning activity of soap will be explained. A few commonly employed production processes for making the soap products will be discussed. The key materials used in the manufacturing process of soap will be highlighted. Finally, the commercial and economic aspects of the present days soap manufacturing will be analyzed. It is the goal of this chapter to provide a broad view of the arts, science, and economics of soap making.