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We conduct research to convert crops, crop residues, dedicated energy crops, and agricultural wastes into economically- and environmentally-sustainable biofuels and value-added coproducts. Thermochemical (fast pyrolysis), enzymatic, chemical, and fermentative processes are developed to convert these feedstocks into sustainable biofuels such as biodiesel, ethanol, advanced biofuels, and advanced crude bio-oil that can be refined to “green” gasoline and diesel. Our work supports the rural economy and US energy independence and helps minimize the impact of biofuels on existing food/feed supplies and markets.