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Research Project: Adding Value to Plant-Based Waste Materials through Development of Novel, Healthy Ingredients and Functional Foods

Location: Healthy Processed Foods Research

Title: Preparation of fish skin gelatin-based nanofibers incorporating cinnamaldehyde by solution blow spinning

Author
item Liu, Fei - Jiangnan University
item Saricaoglu, Furkan Turker - Ondokuz Mayis University
item Avena Bustillos, Roberto
item Bridges, David
item Takeoka, Gary
item Wu, Vivian
item Chiou, Bor-sen
item Wood, Delilah - De
item Mchugh, Tara
item Zhong, Fang - Jiangnan University

Submitted to: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/13/2018
Publication Date: 2/22/2018
Citation: Liu, F., Saricaoglu, F., Avena-Bustillos, R.D., Bridges, D.F., Takeoka, G.R., Wu, V.C., Chiou, B., Wood, D.F., McHugh, T.H., Zhong, F. 2018. Preparation of fish skin gelatin-based nanofibers incorporating cinnamaldehyde by solution blow spinning. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 19(2):618. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020618
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020618

Interpretive Summary: Antimicrobial FSG-based nanofibers incorporating cinnamaldehyde at different ratios through SBS technology were developed. Physicochemical properties of fiber-forming emulsions (FFEs) and their resultant nanofibers were investigated as a function of cinnamaldehyde ratios. Antibacterial activities of these nanofibers and films made by the same FFS against E. coli O157:H7, S. typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes by diffusion and vapor methods as well as their storage stability were evaluated. A significant influence of cinnamaldehyde ratio was demonstrated from the physicochemical, rheological and antimicrobial properties of FFEs and their nanofibers. The morphology of nanofibers was dependent on the viscosity of FFEs, which was controlled by the cinnamaldehyde ratio. Cinnamaldehyde droplets were stretched and distributed on the surface of nanofibers due to their larger size compared to prepared nanofibers. SBS resulted in higher losses of cinnamaldehyde from FFEs than those during film casting. All nanofibers and films showed antimicrobial activity by diffusion and vapor release against the selected foodborne pathogens at all concentrations of cinnamaldehyde. Since cinnamaldehyde was a concentration-dependent antimicrobial, more cinnamaldehyde led to enhanced inhibition effects. Nanofibers had higher antimicrobial activity than films in vapor phase antimicrobial tests due to their larger surface area to volume ratios. The diffusivity of cinnamaldehyde from nanofibers was greatly affected by temperature during storage tests. Loss of cinnamaldehyde was higher at higher cinnamaldehyde ratio, but nanofibers with 10% cinnamaldehyde ratio had the highest retention percent due to changes in their microstructure properties. This research provides insights on the factors that influence the formation and antimicrobial efficacy of cinnamaldehyde-loaded blow spun nanofibers for controlled-release applications.

Technical Abstract: Cinnamaldehyde, a natural preservative that can non-specifically deactivate foodborne pathogens, was successfully incorporated into fish skin gelatin (FSG) solutions and blow spun into uniform nanofibers. The effects of cinnamaldehyde ratios (5-30%, w/w FSG) on physicochemical properties of fiber-forming emulsions (FFEs) and their nanofibers were investigated. Higher ratios resulted in higher values in particle size and viscosity of FFEs, as well as higher values in diameter of nanofibers. Loss of cinnamaldehyde was observed during solution blow spinning (SBS) process and cinnamaldehyde was mainly located on the surface of resultant nanofibers. Nanofibers all showed antibacterial activity by direct diffusion and vapor release against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes. Inhibition zones increased as cinnamaldehyde ratio increased. Nanofibers showed larger inhibition effects than films prepared by casting method when S. typhimurium was exposed to the released cinnamaldehyde vapor, although films had higher remaining cinnamaldehyde than nanofibers after preparation. Lower temperature was favorable for cinnamaldehyde retention, and nanofibers added with 10% cinnamaldehyde ratio showed the highest retention over eight-weeks of storage. Results suggest that FSG nanofibers can be prepared by SBS as carriers for antimicrobials.