|LOPEZ-ROMEROA, JULIO CESAR - Center For Research In Food And Development (CIAD)|
|VALENZUELA-MELENDRES, MARTIN - Center For Research In Food And Development (CIAD)|
|GARCIA-DAVILAA, JIMENA - Center For Research In Food And Development (CIAD)|
|PEDRO CAMOUA, JUAN - Center For Research In Food And Development (CIAD)|
|PENA-RAMOSA, AIDA - Center For Research In Food And Development (CIAD)|
|GONZALEZ-RIOSA, HUMBERTO - Center For Research In Food And Development (CIAD)|
Submitted to: Food Research International
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/28/2017
Publication Date: 10/31/2017
Citation: Lopez-Romeroa, J., Valenzuela-Melendres, M., Juneja, V.K., Garcia-Davilaa, J., Pedro Camoua, J., Pena-Ramosa, A., Gonzalez-Riosa, H. 2017. Effects and interactions of gallic acid, eugenol and temperature on thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in ground chicken. Food Research International. 103:289-294.
Interpretive Summary: Salmonella continues to be a pathogen of significant public health concern to the food industry. Therefore, there is a need to determine time and temperature required to destroy the pathogen in chicken products in order to provide an adequate degree of protection against survival of this pathogen. We developed a predictive model for estimating heat treatment required for destruction of this pathogen in ground chicken with added gallic acid and eugenol. The model can be used to predict the time required at any temperature to kill a certain number of bacteria. This information will be of immediate use to the food industry and regulatory agencies to enhance the safety of ready-to-eat chicken products.
Technical Abstract: The combined effects of heating temperature (55 to 65C), gallic acid (0 to 2.0%), and eugenol (0 to 2.0%) on thermal inactivation of Salmonella in ground chicken were assessed. Thermal death times were determined in bags submerged in a heated water bath maintained at various set temperatures, following a central composite design. The recovery medium was tryptic soy agar supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract and 1% sodium pyruvate. D-values were analyzed by second-order response surface regression for temperature, gallic acid, and eugenol. The observed D-values for chicken with no gallic acid or eugenol at 55, 57.5, 60, 62.5, and 65C were 14.73, 4.71, 2.55, 1.96, and 0.25 min, respectively. A second-order polynomial model developed to inactivate Salmonella was found to be significant (p less than 0.0001) with a R2 = 0.95 and a no significant lack of fit (p more than 0.1073). The statistical analysis of the results showed that, in the range studied, temperature, gallic acid and eugenol had a significant effect on Salmonella D-values. Efficacy of the additives in increasing the sensitivity of the pathogen to heat was concentration dependent. The model developed in this study can be used by processors to design appropriate thermal process to inactivate Salmonella in chicken products used in the study and thereby, ensuring an adequate degree of protection against risks associated with the pathogen.