|Pinero, Jaime - Lincoln University Of Missouri|
|Smith, Trevor - Florida Department Of Agriculture And Consumer Services|
Submitted to: Florida Entomologist
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/18/2016
Publication Date: 1/18/2017
Citation: Pinero, J.C., Souder, S., Smith, T.R., Vargas, R.I. 2017. Attraction of Bactrocera cucurbitae and B.dorsalis(Diptera: Tephritidae) to beer waste and other protein sources laced with ammonium acetate. Florida Entomologist. 100(1):70-75.
Interpretive Summary: Fruit flies represent a highly invasive group of insects, and collectively they continue to pose a threat to the production and export of horticultural crops around the globe. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and the melon fly, B.cucurbitae, are of particular importance because of their pest severity, host range, and invasiveness. Application of commercial protein baits mixed with a killing agent is a common and effective attract-and-kill approach to fruit fly management. However, often commercial protein baits and lure materials are not accessible to farmers due to high cost and/or inaccessibility in several regions of the world. To address this situation, the use of beer waste for fruit fly control has been used in various regions of the globe. Our interest in beer waste stemmed from its ready local availability and comparatively low price. Our main goal is to increase the potential attractiveness of protein baits and beer waste for improved monitoring and suppression of invasive fruit flies. This study conducted through Agricultural Research Service (ARS), U.S. Department of Agriculture, Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, Hilo, Hawaii, evaluated the attraction of oriental fruit fly and melon fly to local beer waste and the commercial baits Nulure, Buminal, and Bugs 4 Bugs with ammonium acetate (AA) or ammonium carbonate (AC). All protein baits were compared to the standard GF-120 NF Naturalyte fruit fly bait. Our findings indicate that beer waste laced with ammonium acetate performed as well as the standard fruit fly bait GF-120. Combined findings can potentially increase the effectiveness of protein baits for fruit fly monitoring and suppression.
Technical Abstract: It is known that adult tephritid fruit fly females require protein sources for adequate egg production and that ammonia and its derivatives serve as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food. The attractiveness of beer waste and the commercially available baits Nulure, Buminal, and Bugs 4 Bugs Fruit with and without ammonium acetate / ammonium carbonate to male and female Bactrocera dorsalis and B.cucurbitae was quantified in field-cage studies in Hawaii. Evaluations also compared the effects of ammonium acetate present / absent on adult fruit fly responses to beer waste, Nulure, Buminal, and Bugs 4 Bugs Fruit Fly Lure and their relative attractiveness when compared to the standard bait GF-120 NF Fruit Fly Bait. Our findings indicate that ammonium carbonate did not exert any effect on the response of B.cucurbitae or B.dorsalis to the protein baits evaluated and that the addition of ammonium acetate to beer waste and to the commercially available bait Bugs 4 Bugs Fruit Fly Lure can improve their attractiveness in particular to female B.cucurbitae. Beer waste laced with ammonium acetate performed as well as the standard fruit fly bait GF-120. In addition, there were variations in the level and type of response between B.cucurbitae and B.dorsalis, and such variability was also dependent upon the type of bait being evaluated. For example, there were several instances where baits lacking ammonium acetate (e.g., beer waste and Nulure for B.cucurbitae; Buminal for B.dorsalis) were as attractive as GF-120. Results are discussed in light of potential applications associated with use of beer waste as a low-cost, readily available material fruit fly monitoring and suppression.