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Nicholas C Manoukis

Research Biologist

Contact Information

Daniel K. Inouye U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center
64 Nowelo St.
Hilo, Hawaii 96720 
Ph: (808) 932-2118
Fx: (808) 959-5470
personal site:

Nicholas Manoukis



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Curriculum Vitae


Research Positions

Research Accomplishments

My current research focuses on the ecology and behavior of Tephritid fruit flies and other invasive tropical pests that threaten US agriculture. It comprises two disparate but complementary components: 1) Computer modeling and simulation and 2) field experiments, often with application of novel sensing or computer-assisted approaches. Results are applicable to surveillance and eradication programs, including those employing sterile insect technique (SIT) and emerging genetic control technologies.

Estimating the time to extirpation of invasive Medfly

Ceratitis capitata, Medfly, is a major pest of fruit crops around the world. In many areas where it abs plot2 is not established it is seen to recurrently invade, such as in S. California. When Medfly is found in these areas by monitoring programs intensive and costly quarantine and population elimination measures are put into place (in California the latter includes insecticide spraying, host fruit stripping, increased trapping and increased Sterile Insect Releases).

One important question is how long to maintain the quarantine after Medfly is no longer detected. Currently, officials rely on traditional deterministic degree-day modeling to estimate how long, given historical temperature profiles, it should take for three generations of Medfly to pass. Depending on where the find is made, a quarantine can last 9 months or longer. I have developed an Agent Based Simulation (ABS) that allows increased specificity, realism and uniform margins of safety when estimating quarantine lengths. This model is implemented in the software MED-FOES, available for download.

Development and Parametrization of a Trap Network Model


Attractant-based trap networks are important elements of invasive insect detection, pest control, and basic research programs. I led development of a landscape-level, spatially explicit model of trap networks, focused on detection, that incorporates variable attractiveness of traps and a movement model for insect dispersion. The model furthers efforts to optimize trap networks by 1) introducing an accessible and realistic mathematical characterization of the operation of a single trap that lends itself easily to parametrization via field experiments and 2) allowing direct quantification and comparison of sensitivity between trap networks. TrapGrid is a software implementation of the model.

Modeling coffee agroecosystems and the pest coffee berry borer

/ARSUserFiles/46055/cbb-gis.jpgCoffee growers in Hawaii and Puerto Rico have recently been challenged by the introduction of a new invasive pest, the coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei, first reported in Puerto Rico in 2007 and on Hawaii Island in 2010. The CBB spends the majority of its life cycle within the coffee berries where it is highly protected from control measures. Each attacking female may produce many progeny within a single coffee berry, increasing over 1-2 generations within a single bean before dozens of offspring emerge to attack more beans.

I am leading a comprehensive monitoring system backed by a network of sensors and GIS data integrated with ground data collection on farms within four coffee growing areas on three islands. This monitoring program is the primary scaffold that will enable research, outreach/technology transfer and assessment components by 1) serving as a baseline against which to compare IPM variations in nearby farms; 2) serving to parameterize the models in development to produce projections of CBB for ecologically diverse locations; and 3) serving as a natural experiment to help us understand how environmental factors affect CBB population dynamics at a fundamental level.

New approaches to quantifying tephritid behavior

Though a lot is known about pest fruit fly behavior, some apects have remained stubbornly hard to measure. This includes the how and why they move over the landscape, and details on their attraction to semiochemicals.

In my laboratory we are addressing both these questions using new approaches. behavior detection apparatusWe have been successful in examining the time of attraction to cuelure by Bactrocera cucurbitae, the melon fly, by using a computer vision approach. You can see some details on this method here in a video and there will be more details in an upcoming paper.

We are also attempting to use RFID technology to measure some of the finer-scale life-time behaviors of individual flies. There will be more details on these experiments soon.

The dance of An. gambiae in mating swarms

mqtrack1Anopheles gambiae is currently described in general terms: they form crepuscular swarms near markers of horizontal contrast, and mate recognition may be mediated by wing beat frequencies or through>chemical cues. A more detailed view this process and of differences betweenmqtrack known subgroups chromosomal/molecular forms regarding male swarming behavior will significantly improve our understanding of natural selection and mate specificity in the field. Since early 2007 I have been working to localize and trackindividual mosquitoes within swarms in the field using stereoscopic video together with Dr. Tovi Lehmann and Malian collaborators at MRTC. Since 2009 we have been working closely with the Paley Laboratory at the University of Mayland aerospace engineering department to create a semi-supervised 3D tracking system. You can read the first paper to come from this project here and follow later developments on my personal pages.

Service, Leadership and Participation in Professional Activities:

Honors, Awards, Achievements and Recognition: