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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Fort Pierce, Florida » U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory » Citrus and Other Subtropical Products Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #327887

Research Project: Quality, Shelf-life and Health Benefits for Fresh, Fresh-cut and Processed Products for Citrus and Other Tropical/Subtropical-grown Fruits and Vegetables

Location: Citrus and Other Subtropical Products Research

Title: Flavor of oranges as impacted by abscission zone formation for trees affected by huanglongbing disease and Lasiodiploida infection

Author
item Baldwin, Elizabeth - Liz
item Plotto, Anne
item Bai, Jinhe
item Zhao, Wei
item Manthey, John
item RAITHORE, SMITA - FORMER ARS EMPLOYEE
item IREY, MIKE - SOUTHERN GARDENS CITRUS

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/27/2016
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Trees affected by Huanglongbing (HLB) exhibit excessive fruit drop, which is exacerbated by secondary infection of the abscission zone by the fungus Lasiodiplodia. ‘Hamlin’ orange trees, both healthy and affected by HLB, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas, determined by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis), from two harvests were shaken, the dropped fruit collected, and the retained fruit harvested. Many of the dropped fruit had no calyx, while most of the retained fruit maintained their calyx after harvest. Subsequent PCR analysis of the fruit side of the abscission zone for Clas and Lasiodiplodia (causal organism of postharvest stem end rot) revealed that the dropped fruit from HLB trees had higher titers of Clas and Lasiodiplodia than the retained fruit, and was the only treatment where the fruit produced ethylene. The fruit were washed, juiced, pasteurized and frozen for later chemical and sensory analyses. Sensory consumer panel difference tests showed that panelists could differentiate between dropped and retained ‘Hamlin’ fruit from HLB-affected trees, but not healthy trees, for the December harvest. This was less significant for the January harvest. A trained panel rated grapefruit, orange peel, green, oxidized oil, typical HLB flavors; sourness, umami, bitterness and metallic tastes; tingling, astringent and burning mouthfeel; and bitter, astringent and burning aftertaste/mouthfeel highest in HLB fruit juice compared to healthy, with bitterness, metallic and bitter aftertaste being higher in dropped compared to retained HLB samples. Conversely, orange and fruity-non-citrus flavors, as well as sweet taste were lower for HLB fruit juice than for healthy and orange and sweetness lowest in HLB dropped samples. Similar results were obtained in January, although less significant. For chemical analyses, sugars and acids were lowest in dropped HLB fruit juice in December, but not in January, except for ratio. The bitter limonoids were generally higher in HLB fruit juice and highest in dropped HLB samples in December and January. This was repeated for ‘Valencia’ in April with similar results although with more differences in sugars. Overall, there were less differences for sugars and acids than for bitter limonoids, but both explained the poor flavor of HLB fruit, and especially the dropped fruit, that were loose on the tree.