Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/30/2016
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: The phasing out of methyl bromide as a soil fumigant has led to a need for new technologies to manage below-ground plant pests and a sustainable approach would be to utilize semiochemicals comparable to above-ground IPM. Soil-dwelling beneficial entomopathogenic (EPNs) (Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp.) and plant-pathogenic nematodes (PPNs) (Meloidogyne spp.) release blends of water-soluble pheromones, called ascarosides, that also function as cross species kairomones. Since these blends can induce behaviors such as dispersal, avoidance, attraction, host infectivity and mating, it should be possible to utilize ascarosides for control of beneficial as well as pest nematodes. Comparable to above ground, plant roots can release herbivory induced volatile organic compounds (VOCs), for example roots of Zea mays in response to feeding by the beetle Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and citrus cultivars ((Citrus paradisi xPoncirus trifoliata) when fed upon by the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus. These VOCs attract EPNs and possibly also PPNs. A below ground system is considerably more static than an above ground system, therefore sampling of semiochemicals (removing water or gas) can have a strong detrimental effects on a studied system. Resent progress made on behavioral bioassays, sampling and new analysis techniques that can handle significantly smaller sample sizes will be presented. Understanding the similarities, and differences, when compared with more successful above-ground use of induced volatiles and tritrophic interactions for pest control should make below-ground IPM much more feasible.