Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/1/2015
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) combined with soil solarization continues to be evaluated for management of plant-parasitic nematodes in vegetable and ornamental crops in Florida. ASD combines organic amendments and soil saturation to stimulate microbial activity and create anaerobic conditions in soil covered with polyethylene mulch. Research has focused on root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) nematode control, and effects on free-living nematodes. Field trials were conducted to determine composition and levels of inputs necessary to control root-knot nematodes (RKN). In initial double-cropped pepper-eggplant trials, M. incognita juvenile (J2) numbers were low through the first season following ASD. By the second eggplant crop, solarization (no amendments or water) averaged greater than 200 nematode J2/100 cm3 soil compared to 10/100 cm3 in ASD with amendments and irrigated with 5-10 cm of water. Application of molasses alone or with composted broiler litter (CBL) combined with irrigation caused reductions in RKN J2 in soil and eggplant roots in the second season compared to soil solarization without amendments or irrigation. Root galling was greatly reduced in treatments containing molasses compared with solarization alone. Free-living nematodes in soil increased with application of CBL. A similar increase in free-living nematodes occurred with ASD using molasses and CBL with 5 cm of water in strawberry production. In cut flowers, RKN management with ASD was highly dependent on host susceptibility. In three cut flower crops, ASD with molasses, CBL, and 5-cm of water under clear polyethylene resulted in yields equivalent to methyl bromide, but did not provide season-long RKN control on snapdragon, which is highly susceptible to RKN. Recent studies indicate totally impermeable film can be substituted for solarization film, reducing plastic use and simplifying ASD application. ASD has been successfully trialed in tomato, cucumber, bell pepper, eggplant, strawberry, and flower crops and can be customized for production system and local waste product inputs.