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Title: The influence of diet on the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to determine the age of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

Author
item LIEBMAN, KELLY - CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION (CDCP) - UNITED STATES
item SWAMIDOSS, ISABEL - CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION (CDCP) - UNITED STATES
item VIZCAINO, LUCRECIA - CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION (CDCP) - UNITED STATES
item LENHART, AUDREY - CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION (CDCP) - UNITED STATES
item Dowell, Floyd
item WIRTZ, ROBERT - CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION (CDCP) - UNITED STATES

Submitted to: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/14/2015
Publication Date: 3/23/2015
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/60927
Citation: Liebman, K., Swamidoss, I., Vizcaino, L., Lenhart, A., Dowell, F.E., Wirtz, R. 2015. The influence of diet on the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to determine the age of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 92(5):1070-1075. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0790.

Interpretive Summary: Dengue viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes and cause more human morbidity and mortality worldwide than any other arthropod-borne virus, with an estimated 390 million infections per year. The principal vector, Aedes aegypti, feeds almost exclusively on humans. Interventions targeting adult mosquitoes are used to combat transmission of this disease. Without available vaccines, controlling mosquitoes is essential to prevent transmission. Older mosquitoes (>7 days) are of greatest significance since only older insects can transmit the virus. Age-grading of female mosquitoes is necessary to identify post-intervention changes in mosquito population age structure. We developed models using near-infrared spectroscopy to age-grade adult female mosquitoes. To determine if diet affects the ability of NIRS models to predict age, two identical larval groups and adult groups were fed different diets. Scans from each group were analyzed, and multiple models were developed using partial least squares regression. The best model included all experimental groups, and positively predicted the age group of 90% mosquitoes. These results suggest both larval and adult diets can affect the ability of NIRS models to accurately assign age categories to female Ae. aegypti.

Technical Abstract: Interventions targeting adult mosquitoes are used to combat transmission of vector-borne diseases, including dengue. Without available vaccines, targeting the primary vector, Aedes aegypti, is essential to prevent transmission. Older mosquitoes (>/='7 days) are of greatest epidemiological significance due to the 7-day extrinsic incubation period of the virus. Age-grading of female mosquitoes is necessary to identify post-intervention changes in mosquito population age structure. We developed models using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to age-grade adult female Ae. aegypti. To determine if diet affects the ability of NIRS models to predict age, two identical larval groups were fed either fish food or infant cereal. Adult females were separated and fed sugar water +/- blood, resulting in four experimental groups. Females were killed 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, or 16 days postemergence. The head/thorax of each mosquito was scanned using a near-infrared spectrometer. Scans from each group were analyzed, and multiple models were developed using partial least squares regression. The best model included all experimental groups, and positively predicted the age group (< or >/= 7 days) of 90.2% mosquitoes. These results suggest both larval and adult diets can affect the ability of NIRS models to accurately assign age categories to female Ae. aegypti.