|FLINN, PAUL - Retired ARS Employee
Submitted to: Journal of Stored Products Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/18/2015
Publication Date: 8/15/2015
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/61711
Citation: Arthur, F.H., Hartzer, K.L., Throne, J.E., Flinn, P.F. 2015. Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Trogoderma inclusum (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) to cold temperatures. Journal of Stored Products Research. 64:45-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jspr.2015.07.006.
Interpretive Summary: There have been many studies using cold temperatures to kill stored product insects but few were conducted at 0°F, which is a common temperature for freezers utilized by the US milling industry. We conducted studies by exposing different life stages of the red flour beetle and the warehouse beetle for various times to 0°F. The egg was the most tolerant life stage of the red flour beetle, while older larvae were the most tolerant life stage of the warehouse beetle. Results show that insect species and life stages vary in their response to extreme cold temperatures, and results obtained for one species and/or life stage may not be transferrable to other species, and control strategies utilizing freezing as a disinfestation strategy may need to be developed for individual stored product insect species.
Technical Abstract: Studies were conducted by exposing different life stages of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, and Trogoderma variabile (Ballion), the warehouse beetle, for different time intervals to -18°C. Assessments were made of direct mortality to eggs, larvae, and adults, and eventual adult emergence of immatures. When possible, data were described by non-linear equations. The eggs and larvae were the most tolerant life stage of T. castaneum. Eight hours of exposure were required for 100% kill of 3-4-day-old eggs and 0-10 and 11-21-day old larvae, but only 4, 0.5, and 0.5 hours respectively were required to completely inhibit adult emergence. For T. variabile, the most tolerant life stage was 15-28-day old larvae, 64 and 16 hours respectively were required for complete mortality and inhibition of adult emergence. Results indicate that T. variabile was the more tolerant species, and different treatment protocols would be required for the two species when using -18°C as a disinfestation strategy.