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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Fort Pierce, Florida » U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory » Citrus and Other Subtropical Products Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #310519

Title: Development of delayed bitterness and effect of harvest date in stored juice from two complex citrus hybrids

item Raithore, Smita
item Dea, Sharon
item McCollum, Thomas
item Manthey, John
item Bai, Jinhe
item LECLAIR, CLOTILDE - Ecole Nationale Superieur
item HIJAZ, FARAJ - University Of Florida
item NARCISO, JAN - Former ARS Employee
item Baldwin, Elizabeth - Liz
item Plotto, Anne

Submitted to: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/17/2015
Publication Date: 2/26/2016
Citation: Raithore, S., Dea, S., Mccollum, T.G., Manthey, J.A., Bai, J., Leclair, C., Hijaz, F., Narciso, J., Baldwin, E.A., Plotto, A. 2016. Development of delayed bitterness and effect of harvest date in stored juice from two complex citrus hybrids. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 96:422-429.

Interpretive Summary: Tangerines are increasingly popular as citrus fruit and their juice has recently been marketed on a limited basis. New hybrids were tested for optimal harvest date and for “delayed bitterness” which can be a problem for Navel orange and tangerine juices, but varies by genetic background. In this study two mandarin hybrid siblings were tested by sensory and instrumental analyses for flavor descriptors and flavor chemical compounds. One of the hybrids was found to have the delayed bitterness characteristic and, thus, is not a good candidate for juicing.

Technical Abstract: Mandarins and mandarin hybrids have excellent flavor and color attributes making them good candidates for consumption as fresh fruit. When processed into juice, however, they are not very palatable as they develop delayed bitterness when stored for a period of time. In this study, kinetics of delayed bitterness in two mandarin hybrid siblings: Ambersweet and USDA 105-106 were explored by sensory and instrumental analyses. In addition to the limonoids, sugars, acids, pH, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and the ratio of SSC and TA were also measured. The two mandarin hybrid siblings had different chemical profiles, which were perceived by taste panels. USDA 105-106 developed delayed bitterness when the juice was stored for more than 4 hours at or below 10 °C, similar to juice from Navel oranges but Ambersweet did not. Bitterness in Ambersweet was more affected by harvest maturity as juice from earlier harvests had lower SSC but higher TA as well as two bitter limonoids. Since juice of USDA-105-106 shows delayed bitterness when stored for more than 4 hours, this cultivar is not suitable for juice processing. Our finding that siblings can differ in chemical and sensory properties emphasize the importance of post-processing storage studies before releasing cultivars for juice.