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Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Support the Global Control and Eradication of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus(FMDV)

Location: Foreign Animal Disease Research

Title: Serotype diversity of foot-and-mouth-disease virus in livestock without history of vaccination in the far north region of Cameroon

Author
item Ludi, Anna - Oak Ridge Institute For Science And Education (ORISE)
item Ahmed, Zaheer - Oak Ridge Institute For Science And Education (ORISE)
item Pomeroy, L - The Ohio State University
item Pauszek, Steven
item Smoliga, George
item Moritz, M - The Ohio State University
item Dickmu, Simon - Lanavet
item Abdoulkadiri, S - Lanavet
item Arzt, Jonathan
item Garabed, Rebecca - The Ohio State University
item Rodriguez, Luis

Submitted to: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/7/2014
Publication Date: 4/16/2014
Citation: Ludi, A., Ahmed, Z., Pomeroy, L.W., Pauszek, S.J., Smoliga, G.R., Moritz, M., Dickmu, S., Abdoulkadiri, S., Arzt, J., Garabed, R., Rodriguez, L.L. 2014. Serotype diversity of foot-and-mouth-disease virus in livestock without history of vaccination in the far north region of Cameroon. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 63:e27-38. doi: 10.1111/TBED.12227.

Interpretive Summary: Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly transmissible disease of livestock. Little information is available about the natural transmission and maintenance cycles of FMD, particularly in countries where the disease occurs regularly and in the absence of control measures such as vaccination. Cameroon presented a unique opportunity to study FMD in a natural setting because FMD vaccination is not practiced. We monitored FMD virus infections among different livestock production systems (e.g. sedentary and mobile herds) in the Far North region of Cameroon. We found evidence of FMD virus infection in over 75% of the animals sampled. We also found antibodies reactive to five of the seven existing FMD virus types (called serotypes A, O, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3) among the animals sampled. Finally, we also characterized viruses obtained from FMD infected animals in Cameroon and found that these viruses were closely related to other viruses circulating in Africa. This research will guide the development of future control methods for FMD, such as improved diagnostics and vaccines.

Technical Abstract: Little information is available about the natural cycle of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the absence of control measures such as vaccination. Cameroon presents a unique opportunity for epidemiological studies because FMD vaccination is not practiced. We carried out a prospective study including serological, antigenic and genetic aspects of FMD virus (FMDV) infections among different livestock production systems in the Far North of Cameroon to gain insight into the natural ecology of the virus. We found serological evidence of FMDV infection in over 75% of the animals sampled with no significant differences of prevalence observed among the sampled groups (i.e. market, sedentary, transboundary trade and mobile). We also found antibodies reactive to five of the seven FMDV serotypes (A, O, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3) among the animals sampled. Finally, we were able to genetically characterize viruses obtained from clinical and subclinical FMD infections in Cameroon. Serotype O viruses grouped into two topotypes (West and East Africa). SAT2 viruses grouped with viruses from Central and Northern Africa, notably within the sublineage causing the large epidemic in Northern Africa in 2012, suggesting a common origin for these viruses. This research will guide future interventions for the control of FMD such as improved diagnostics, guidance for vaccine formulation and epidemiological understanding in support of the progressive control of FMD in Cameroon.